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【法規內容】


《中華民國建國一百年社會福利政策綱領》
邁向公平、包容與正義的新社會



 Guiding Principles for R.O.C. Centenary Social Welfare Policy  Towards a New Society with Equity, Inclusion, and Justice

【沿革】
1‧行政院101.1.9院臺內字第1010120382號函修正核定

【內容】

  社會福利政策是我國基本國策之一,早在民國三十四年由於抗戰勝利在望,政府即頒布「民族保育政策綱領」、「勞工政策綱領」、「農民政策綱領」及「戰後社會安全初步實施綱領」等四大社會政策綱領以取代戰時的難民救濟,而當中所強調的就業輔導、社會保險、與社會救助更成為政府遷臺後臺灣地區社會安全制度的基本架構。隨著社會環境的快速變遷,為謀國民福利之均衡發展而迭有修正,如五十四年「民生主義現階段社會政策」、五十八年的「現階段社會建設綱領」等,終至八十三年通盤檢討頒布「社會福利政策綱領」,並於九十三年再度修正。


  Social welfare policy is one of the basic national policies of our country. As early as 1945, with victory in sight in the Second Sino-Japanese War, the government promulgated four major social policies – Guiding Principles for Population Preservation Policy, Guiding Principles for Labor Policy, Guiding Principles for the Policy on Farmers, and Guiding Principles for Initial Implementation of Post-war Social Security – to replace wartime refugee relief. The emphasized employment service, social insurance, and social assistance even became parts of the basic framework for the social security system after the government’s relocation to Taiwan. Following rapid changes in the social environment, amendments were made a number of times over the years for the balanced development of citizen welfare, e.g. Current Social Policy for the Principle of Livelihood in 1965 and Guiding Principles for Current Social Development in 1969. Finally, following a full review, Guiding Principles for Social Welfare Policy was promulgated in 1994, which was again revised in 2004.


  回顧我國的社會福利,係因應不同社會發展階段的需要,或由政府主動立法、或由民間呼籲推動,曾經歷了三個「黃金十年」。民國四十年代是第一個黃金十年,確立勞保、公保與軍保三大社會保險體系,實現政府遷臺前未竟的理想,也奠下臺灣現代福利體系的根基;民國六十年代開啟了第二個黃金十年,「民生主義現階段社會政策」的制訂代表政府有了具體的福利施政方針,這段期間產生諸多後續影響深遠的福利發展:第一個具中央政策意涵的社會福利政策綱領、奠立專業化的社會工作員制度、初具現代化意義的社會救助措施、社區發展成為促進福利的方法之一,以及針對兒童、老人與身心障礙者的福利立法,這些都意味著中華民國的社會福利已經逐漸成為重要的施政項目;民國八十年代則是第三個黃金十年,完成諸多具現代化與社會正義意義的福利法案,包括八十三年「全民健康保險法」、八十四年「兒童及少年性交易防制條例」、八十四年「老年農民福利津貼暫行條例」、八十六年「身心障礙者保護法」、八十六年「性侵害犯罪防治法」、八十六年「社會工作師法」及八十七年「家庭暴力防治法」等,在這段期間也開始召開全國社會福利會議,將民間與學者的意見納入到政府的福利決策之中,讓社會福利政策更貼近民眾的需求,充分展現民主化對社會福利的重大影響。


  Looking back at the development of social welfare in our country, three “golden decades” were experienced in meeting the needs of social development at different stages, involving either the government enacting legislation or the private sector appealing for promotion. In the 1950s, which was the first golden decade, the three main systems of social insurance – labor insurance, insurance for civil servants and teachers, and military personnel insurance – were established, realizing the unfulfilled ideal from before the government’s relocation to Taiwan and also laying down the foundation for the present-day welfare system of Taiwan. The 1970s opened up the second golden decade during which the enactment of Current Social Policy for the Principle of Livelihood signified the government’s obtaining of specific guidelines on welfare administration, and also resulted in numerous welfare developments that had profound influences subsequently, including the first central policy-implicated program on social welfare policy, the setting up of a professionalized system of social workers, a newly modernized social assistance, and community development as a means of welfare facilitation. Along with welfare legislations aimed for children, elderlies, and people with disabilities, all of these developments signified that social welfare had gradually become an important particular of administration. The 1990s was the third golden decade with the completions of numerous welfare legislations carrying modern and social justice significance, such as the National Health Insurance Act in 1994, the Child and Youth Sexual Transaction Prevention Act and the Temporary Statute on Senior Farmer Welfare Allowance in 1995, People with Disabilities Protection Act, the Sexual Assault Crime Prevention Act and the Social Worker Act in 1997, and the Domestic Violence Prevention Act in 1998. During this period, national conferences on social welfare were also convened, ensuring that the government’s social welfare policy was closer to the needs of the people by incorporating the opinions of the private sector and scholars into the government’s welfare-related decisions, to fully demonstrate the significant impact of democratization on social welfare.


  這些努力奠定我國社會福利發展的重要基礎,是媲美經濟成長之外的另一個社會成就。惟,國家社會所面臨之新、舊挑戰未嘗稍歇,全球化下國家競爭力的維持、產業轉型帶來就業型態與機會的轉變、人口高齡化與少子女化所帶來的世代正義議題,以及家庭型態趨於多元、貧富差距擴大導致青年與中產階級落入貧窮的焦慮感日深等,構成當前我國社會發展的新挑戰。因此,政府持續檢視與修正各種既有之社會福利法案,九十六年及九十八年「老人福利法」修正以積極維護老人尊嚴與自主,形塑友善老人的生活環境;九十六年全面修正並更名的「身心障礙者權益保障法」,彰顯對身心障礙者人格維護及基本權益保障的重視,亦確立與國際接軌的方向,其後分別於九十八年及一百年修正,更加強化促進身心障礙者社會參與的目標;九十六年「國民年金法」完備了我國的社會安全體系,之後分別於九十七年、一百年修正以因應新的社會變遷需要;九十八年「特殊境遇家庭扶助條例」向性別平等更邁進一步;九十九年「社會救助法」大幅修正以納入更多遭遇貧窮威脅的國民;一百年則有全面修正並更名的「兒童及少年福利與權益保障法」,更周延地維護兒童及少年權益與展現我國落實聯合國兒童權利公約的努力;「性侵害犯罪防治法」修正以強化刑後強制治療及社區監督處遇制度,彌補刑法的立法空窗,保障國民的人身安全;「工會法」、「團體協約法」與「勞資爭議處理法」之勞動三法修正案實施,保障了勞工的團結權、協商權及爭議權;而二代健保的持續推動改革與長期照顧體系的建構,更是政府未來重要的社會福利施政目標。


  These efforts laid down the important foundation for our country’s social welfare development, being another favorable social achievement besides our economic growth. However, the country and the society have continued to face challenges, new and old. The sustainment of national competitiveness under globalization, the changes in employment pattern and opportunity as brought by industry transformation, the generational justice issues resulting from population aging and low birthrate, the gradual diversification in family patterns, and the expanding wealth gap that has led to an increasing sense of concern among the youth and the middle class of falling into poverty constitute the new challenges in our country’s current social development. Therefore, the government has continued to examine and to amend the various existing social welfare legislations, revising the Senior Citizens Welfare Act in 2007 and 2011 to actively safeguard the dignity and the autonomy of senior citizens and to shape a senior-friendly living environment. The fully amended and renamed People with Disabilities Rights Protection Act in 2007 manifested the government’s attention to maintaining the character of disabled people and protecting their basic rights and affirmed the direction for gearing up to international standards, and in the act’s subsequent amendments in 2009 and 2011 respectively, the objective of facilitating social participation by people with disabilities was further reinforced. The 2007 enacted National Pension Act, which was subsequently amended in 2009 and again in 2011 to respond to the new needs emerged as results of social changes, perfected our country’s social security system. In 2009, our country took a step further toward gender equality with the Act for Assisting Families in Hardship, and in 2010, the Social Assistance Act was significantly revised to incorporate more citizens threatened by poverty. In 2011, the fully revised and renamed Children and Youth Welfare and Rights Protection Act safeguarded more extensively the rights of children and youth and demonstrated our country’s effort in implementing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The amendment to Sexual Assault Crime Prevention Act aimed to reinforce the compulsory treatment after release and the community supervision and treatment system, to make up for legislative deficiencies in the Criminal Code and to the personal safety of citizens. The implementation of amendments to the Labor Union Act, the Collective Agreement Act, and the Settlement of Labor Disputes Law – the three labor-related legislations – ensured the rights of labors to unionize, bargain, and dispute. Finally, the continuing implementation of second generation NHI reform and the establishment of a long-term care system are the important administrative objectives of the government for the future concerning social welfare.  


  我國社會福利政策係基於憲法保障國民基本人權之精神,而九十八年立法院通過、並由總統簽署批准「經濟社會文化權利國際公約」及「公民與政治權利國際公約」兩項聯合國人權公約,更促進我國社會福利發展與國際接軌,謀求建立符合時代趨勢與民眾需要之社會福利體系。其消極目的在於去除社會的不公,幫助社會弱勢,以保障所有國民之基本生活與家庭之幸福和諧;而積極之目的更在彰顯社會互助團結之價值,縮減貧富差距,讓每一個世代都有公平發展的機會,經濟成長的果實能為全民所共享。因此,政府將秉持憲法與國際人權公約之基本精神,定期檢視時空環境變遷,適時調整現行社會福利政策,遂以「邁向公平、包容與正義之新社會」作為建國一百年社會福利政策綱領之願景。


  Our country’s social welfare policy is based on the essence of the Constitution’s protection of basic human rights of citizens. In 2009, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – two UN conventions passed by the Legislative Yuan and signed and ratified by the president – further facilitated our country’s social welfare development and helped bringing it in line with international standards, seeking to establish a social welfare system that is in keeping with the trends of the era and the needs of the people. Passively, it intends to eliminate the injustice existing in the society and to help the disadvantaged, looking to safeguard the basic living of all citizens and the happiness and harmony of families. Actively, it aims to highlight the values of mutual assistance and solidarity in the society and to shorten the gap between rich and poor, giving every generation a fair opportunity for development and allowing the fruits of economic growth to be shared by all citizens. Therefore, the government will uphold the basic spirit of the Constitution and international conventions on human rights, will regularly inspect the timely changes in the social environment and will promptly adjust the existing social welfare policy, holding “Towards a New Society of Equity, Inclusion, and Justice” as the vision of the guiding principles for R.O.C. centenary social welfare policy.  


  公平的新社會首在保障弱勢國民,減少社會不公情形。政府除應支持家庭發揮生教養衛功能外,並應積極協助弱勢家庭,維護其家庭生活品質,落實在地服務,讓兒童、少年、身心障礙者、老人均以在家庭與社區中受到照顧與保護為優先原則,並在考量上述人口群的最佳利益之下提供補充性措施,以切合被服務者之個別需求與人性化的要求。為此,中央與地方政府應本於一體關係推動社會福利,全國一致的方案應由中央規劃推動,因地制宜之方案由地方政府負責規劃執行,而中央政府應積極協助縮小城鄉差距。政府應聚焦於國民基本生活、健康、尊嚴之保障,而民間能夠提供之服務,政府應發揚公私夥伴關係,鼓勵民間協力合作,並致力於創造非營利組織與社會企業發展的環境,以提供國民完善的服務。


  The primary emphases of a new society with equity lie in protecting disadvantaged  citizens and reducing social inequality. Besides supporting families to have them played out the functions of birth, education, rearing and protection, the government should actively assist disadvantaged families to maintain their quality of living and to deliver local services, as the principle that takes precedence, enabling children, juveniles, the disabled and elderlies to receive care and protection in their families and communities. Additionally, after taking into consideration the most favorable benefits for the aforementioned population groups, the government should provide supplementary measures that tally with individual demands and user-friendly needs of those served. For this purpose, the central and local governments should push forward social welfare as an integrated body with the central government planning and implementing national programs and local governments being in charge of planning and enforcing region-adjusted schemes, and the central government should assist actively in reducing the gap between urban and rural areas. The government should focus on safeguarding the basic living, health, and dignity of citizens. Regarding services that the private sector is capable of providing, the government should promote public-private partnerships and should encourage collaborations by the private sector. Moreover, the government should be committed to creating the environment for the development of non-profit organizations and social enterprises in order to provide perfect service for citizens.  


  包容的新社會在於消除一切制度性的障礙,保障所有國民參與社會的權利。政府應積極介入,預防與消除國民因年齡、性別、種族、宗教、性傾向、身心狀況、婚姻、社經地位、地理環境等差異而可能遭遇的歧視、剝削、遺棄、虐待、傷害與不義,以避免社會排除。尊重多元文化差異,為不同性傾向、族群、婚姻關係、家庭規模、家庭結構所構成的家庭型態營造友善包容的社會環境。為達上述目標,政府應結合社會福利、衛生醫療、民政、戶政、勞動、教育、農業、司法、營建、原住民等部門,加強跨部會整合與績效管理,俾利提供全人、全程、全方位的服務,以增進資源使用的效率。


  A new society with inclusion aims to remove all institutional obstacles, protecting the rights of all citizens to participate in the society. The government should intervene actively, preventing and eliminating all forms of discrimination, exploitation, abandonment, abuse, harm, and injustice that citizens may possibly encounter as results of their differences in age, gender, race, religion, sexual inclination, physical and mental statuses, marriage, SES, and geographical environment, to avoid social exclusion. Also, the government should respect the differences across cultures, building a friendly and inclusive social environment for family patterns consisting of different sexual inclinations, races, marital relationships, and family sizes and structures. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, the government should integrate relevant departments, such as those concerning social welfare, health and medical care, civil affairs, household registration, labor affairs, education, agriculture, judicature, construction, and indigenous people affairs, strengthening cross-departmental integration and performance management, to better provide whole-person, whole-course, all-around service so as to enhance the efficiency of resource utilization.  


  正義的新社會在於提供所有國民平等的發展機會,以國民福祉為優先,針對政治、經濟、社會快速變遷下的國民需求,主動提出因應對策。尤其著重積極福利,藉由社會投資累積人力資本來促進經濟與所得的穩定成長,進而提升國民生活品質,維繫社會團結與凝聚。為此,各種社會福利措施應該善盡其各自的功能,因應生活風險建構健全的預防制度,以社會救助與津貼維護國民生活尊嚴,以社會保險維持國民基本經濟安全,以福利服務提升家庭生活品質,以健康照護維持國民健康與人力品質,以就業穩定國民之所得安全與社會參與,以居住協助與社區營造協助國民在地安居樂業。更須致力於社會福利財務負擔的衡平、即時資訊系統的整合、社工與衛生人力的充實、教育訓練的精進、研究發展的創新,以及科學指標的建構等,以期社會福利的永續發展。


  A new society with justice provides all citizens with equal opportunities for development, regards the well-being of citizens as priority and proposes actively coping strategies in response to the needs of citizens under rapid political, economic and social changes. Particularly, it puts the emphasis on positive welfare, facilitating steady economic and income growth through social investment and accumulating human capital, to subsequently improve the quality of living of citizens and to maintain social solidarity and cohesion. Therefore, the various measures of social welfare should each fulfill its function, to maintain the dignity of citizens with social assistance and allowance, to preserve the basic economic security of citizens with social insurance, to improve families’ quality of living with welfare services, to sustain the health of citizens and the quality of manpower with health care, to stabilize the income security and social participation of citizens with employment, and to assist citizens in settling down locally and living peacefully and contentedly with housing assistance and community building, so as to a sound preventive system being constructed in response to the risks in life. Furthermore, in anticipation for the sustainable development of social welfare, it must also be committed to the balancing of social welfare finance, the integration of real-time information system, the strengthening of social work and health manpower, the advancement of educational training, the innovation of research and development, and the establishment of scientific indicators.


  參酌國際慣例大抵以社會保險、社會救助、福利服務、醫療保健、就業服務、社會住宅,以及教育為社會福利政策之主要內容;復考量我國社會福利政策的歷史傳承與實施現況,援引多層次保障概念以經濟安全為核心漸次擴大,區分社會救助與津貼、社會保險、福利服務、健康與醫療照護、就業安全、居住正義與社區營造等六大項目為本綱領之內涵,依序臚列如次:


  Referring to general international practices, the primary contents of social welfare policies mostly involve social insurance, social assistance, welfare services, medical and health care, employment services, social housing, and education. Moreover, taken into consideration the history and the current implementation of our country’s social welfare policy, this particular guiding principles has adopted the concept of multi-leveled protection, holding “economic security” as the core to expand gradually and dividing into six categories in regard to its contents: social assistance and allowance, social insurance, welfare services, health and medical care, employment security, and housing justice and community building. They are listed and described in order as follows:  

一、社會救助與津貼


  (一)政府應建構以社會保險為主,社會津貼為輔,社會救助為最後一道防線的社會安全體系,並應明定三者之功能區分與整合。
  (二)政府社會救助之設計應以能維持國民之基本經濟生活水準。
  (三)政府應定期檢討社會救助的請領資格、給付水準及行政程序,以確保國民得到適切的救助。
  (四)社會津貼應因應國民特殊的需求而設計,針對社會保險不足之處予以補充,逐步整合成國民基本所得保障。
  (五)政府應積極協助低所得家庭累積資產與開創人力資本,鼓勵其家庭及早脫貧。
  (六)政府應提供低所得家庭多元社會參與管道,擴增其社會資源,避免社會排除。
  (七)政府應建立失業給付與社會救助體系間的銜接,依低所得家庭需求提供或轉介有工作能力者相關就業服務、職業訓練或以工代賑,增進其工作能力,協助其重返職場,以紓緩其家庭之經濟困境。
  (八)政府應結合民間資源提供補充性之社會救助或福利服務,讓無法納入救助體系的弱勢者得到適時協助。
  (九)政府對於國民因重大災難所造成的損害,應施予災害救助,以利國民儘速生活重建。
  (十)政府對於國民罹患嚴重傷病無力負擔所需醫療費用,應予以補助。
  (十一)政府對於國民因遭逢急難變故致生活陷困,應予以急難救助,提供及時紓困。
  (十二)政府應結合金融機構推展微型貸款、微型保險、發展帳戶、逆向房貸、財產信託等方案,增進弱勢民眾資產累積或抵禦風險的能力。
  A. Social Assistance and Allowance
  (1)The government should build a social security system that is based on social insurance principally and social allowance secondarily and that holds social assistance as the basic safety net. The government should also stipulate how the functions of the three are differentiated and integrated.
  (2)The design of social assistance should be so that the basic standard of living of citizens, economically, can be maintained.
  (3)The government should regularly review the eligibility for claiming social assistance, the level of payment, and the administrative processes to ensure that citizens are getting appropriate assistance.
  (4)Social allowances should be designed in response to the special needs of citizens, complementing specifically the deficiencies of social insurance, and are to be gradually integrated as basic income for all citizens.
  (5)The government should actively assist low-income families in accumulating assets and creating human capitals and should encourage such families to get out of poverty as soon as possible.
  (6)The government should provide diverse channels for social participation of low-income families, expanding their social resources to avoid social exclusion.
  (7)The government should set up links between unemployment benefits and the system of social assistance, providing or referring relevant employment services, occupational trainings, or workfare opportunities for work-capable individuals according to the needs of low-income families, to ease the financial hardship of such families by increasing their work capability and by assisting them to get back to the workplace.
  (8)The government should integrate private resources to offer supplementary social assistance or welfare services, enabling those disadvantaged who are excluded from the system of social assistance to get timely helps.
  (9)Regarding losses suffered by citizens that are results of major disasters, the government should offer aids for disaster losses to help citizens to reconstruct their lives as soon as possible.
  (10)The government should subsidize citizens suffering from serious illnesses who can’t afford the required treatment fees.
  (11)The government should grant emergency financial assistance for citizens whose lives have fallen into hardship due to sudden crises or misfortunes, providing timely hardship relief.
  (12)The government should work with financial institutions to promote microloan, microinsurance, development account, reverse mortgage, and property trust, increasing disadvantaged individuals’ accumulation of assets and ability to withstand risks.    

二、社會保險


  (一)社會保險之目的在於保障全體國民免於因年老、疾病、死亡、身心障礙、生育,以及保障受僱者免於因職業災害、失業、退休,而陷入個人及家庭的經濟危機。據此,其體系應涵蓋職業災害保險、健康保險、年金保險、就業保險、長期照護保險等。
  (二)社會保險應兼顧個人與家庭的所得安全,以及各人口群、職業別的所得重分配效果。
  (三)社會保險應依公平正義原則對經濟弱勢者提供保險費之補助,且給付應考量適足性,以維持被保險人的經濟安全。
  (四)與所得相關之保險給付,若因不同職業別與所得等級造成給付水準、所得替代率與給付條件等之差距,政府應積極予以縮小。
  (五)社會保險之退休給付與老年給付,應以年金化、年資可隨個人移轉的原則來優先設計。
  (六)社會保險體系之財務設計必須考量人口結構變遷所可能產生之財務危機,保險費率、給付水準、支付制度、所得替代率、行政費用等均應詳實評估,以符合財務健全與世代間公平正義。
  (七)社會保險保險費率應依精算結果收支連動,避免因政治及經濟等環境因素干擾,影響保險費率之調整,以健全各類社會保險的財務穩定性。
  B. Social Insurance
  (1)The purpose of social insurance lies in protecting all citizens, as results of old age, illness, death, mental or physical disability, and pregnancy and childbirth, and employees, as results of occupational accident, unemployment, and retirement, from personal and family financial crises. Accordingly, the system should cover occupational accident, health, pension, employment and long-term care insurances.
  (2)Social insurance should take into consideration the income security of both individuals and families and the effect of income redistribution for the various population groups and occupation categories.
  (3)Social insurance should provide premium subsidies for economically disadvantaged individuals in accordance with principles of equity and justice, and the adequacy of payment should be considered to sustain the economic security of the insured.
  (4)Regarding income-related insurance payments, if gaps in payment level, income replacement rate and eligibility resulted as consequences of different occupation categories and income levels, the government should work to reduce them actively.
  (5)In designing the retirement and old-age payment of social insurance, the principles of pension and portable seniority should take precedence.
  (6)The designing of the social insurance finance has to face seriously the crises that may result from changes in population structure, so that premium rates, payment levels, the payment system, income replacement rates, and administrative costs must be taken into consideration and should all be fully and accurately assessed to meet financial soundness and inter-generational equity and justice.
  (7)To strengthen the financial stability of the various types of social insurance, social insurance premium rates should couple revenues and expenditures according to actuarial results to avoid the influencing of premium rate adjustment as consequences of interference yielded by political and economic factors in the environment.  

三、福利服務


  (一)政府對於國民因年齡、性別、身心狀況、種族、宗教、婚姻、性傾向等社會人口特質而有之健康、照顧、保護、教育、就業、社會參與、發展等需求,應結合家庭與民間力量,提供適當的服務,以促進其身心健全發展。
  (二)政府應與他國建立互惠協議,以保障因婚姻、工作、學習、旅遊等因素而居住在他國的本國國民之人權。
  (三)政府對於因婚姻、工作、學習、旅遊等因素居住於本國之外國人,應提供適當的對待與協助。
  (四)政府針對經濟弱勢之兒童、少年、身心障礙者、老人、婦女、原住民、婚姻移民家庭、單親家庭等應有適切協助,以提升生活品質。
  (五)政府對各項健康與福利服務之提供應以可近性、連續性、權責分明、費用負擔得起,以及滿足全人需求為原則進行規劃。
  (六)政府與民間應協力營造有利於兒童與少年身心健全發展之環境。兒童與少年其家庭或照顧者若有經濟、社會與心理支持、衛生醫療、及其他有關家庭功能發揮之需求時,政府應給予協助。當原生家庭不利於兒童與少年的身心健全發展時,政府應保護之,並提供適當之照顧或安置資源,以利其健康成長。
  (七)政府應整合社會福利、衛生、教育等部門,提供兒童早期療育服務。
  (八)政府應建構完整之兒童教育與照顧服務體系,落實整合托兒、學前教育及學齡兒童課後服務,並對處於經濟、文化、區域、族群發展等不利條件下的兒童及少年,保障其接受平等普及且高品質之照顧支持的機會。
  (九)政府應結合民間協助兒童與少年建立自尊、培養社區歸屬感、熱愛生命、因應生活壓力、學習獨立自主、參與公共事務及發展潛能。
  (十)政府應積極推動無歧視與無障礙之社區居住及生活環境,讓身心障礙者可以在人性化與有尊嚴的環境中發展,有充分的社會參與及發揮其潛能的機會。
  (十一)政府應保障身心障礙者接受教育、就業、居住及醫療等權益,使其轉銜無礙,並應結合民間資源提供其支持服務、經濟安全、身體及財產保護。 (十二)政府與民間應整合社會福利、衛生醫療、教育及相關資源,營造高齡友善環境,保障老人尊嚴自主與健康安全。
  (十三)政府應結合民間倡導活躍老化,鼓勵老人社會參與,提供教育學習機會,提升生活調適能力,豐富高齡生活內涵。並強化代間交流,倡導家庭價值,鼓勵世代傳承,營造悅齡親老與世代融合社會。 (十四)政府照顧老人及身心障礙者應以居家式和社區式服務為主,機構式服務為輔。 (十五)政府應結合民間資源提供家庭支持服務措施,提升家庭照顧能量及親職教育功能、減少家庭照顧及教養壓力,預防並解決家庭問題。 (十六)政府推動各項福利服務措施應有性別意識,政策擬訂前應執行性別影響評估,以保障性別平等,消除性別歧視。 (十七)政府應強化司法、警政、社政、衛政、教育、勞政、戶政等系統之整合與協調合作,建構反性別暴力之安全網,完備保障民眾人身安全之法令,加強對加害人之約制、落實對被害人之保護,確保被害人人身安全、尊嚴與權益。 (十八)政府應針對原住民族地區地理環境、文化語言之特殊性,積極整合社會福利、衛生醫療、教育等部門,建立因地制宜之福利服務措施,提昇福利服務輸送效能,縮減城鄉福利資源的分配差異,營造尊重多元文化差異、確保原住民族生活福祉之公平正義的社會。  (十九)政府應尊重軍人對國家、社會之貢獻,對清寒之退除役官兵及其眷屬、遺族,應予輔(濟)助,改善其生活品質。  (二十)政府與民間應充實社工人力,予以妥善配置運用,並建立社工人力資源培訓、分科分級薪資標準及保護性社工保障措施之機制,並強化國際社會工作人才之養成,提升專業服務品質,並完備社會工作專業體制。
  C. Welfare Services
  (1)On health, care, protection, education, employment, social participation, and development-related demands of citizens that are results of socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, mental/physical status, race, religion, marriage, and sexual inclination, the government should join forces with families and the private sector to facilitate their sound developments, both mentally and physically, by providing suitable services.
  (2)The government should set up reciprocal agreements with other countries to protect the rights of R.O.C. nationals who live abroad for reasons of marriage, work, study, and travel.
  (3)The government should provide proper treatment and assistance to foreigners who are living in the country for reasons of marriage, work, study, and travel.
  (4)To improve their quality of living, the government should provide economically disadvantaged children, juveniles, persons with disabilities, elderlies, women, indigenous people, and immigrant and single parent families with appropriate assistance.
  (5)The government’s providing of various health and welfare services should be planned on the basis of accessibility, continuity, clear definition of rights and responsibilities, affordability, and the sufficing of whole-person needs.
  (6)The government and the private sector should join forces to build an environment favorable for children and juveniles to develop healthily. If and when families or carers of children and juveniles require economic, social and psychological supports or have health, medical and other family functions-related needs, the government should provide assistance. When the biological family of a child or a juvenile is unfavorable for his/her sound development, the government should protect and provide appropriate care or placement resources for him/her to grow up healthily.
  (7)The government should integrate departments in charge of social welfare, health, and education in providing services for early intervention of children.
  (8)The government should establish a complete service system for the education and care of children, should fulfill the integration of childcare, preschool education and schoolchildren after-school services and should ensure that children and juveniles growing up in unfavorable conditions in terms of economy, culture, region, and ethnic development are getting opportunities for equal, universal, and high-quality care and supports.
  (9)The government should work with the private sector in helping children and juveniles building up self-esteem, fostering a sense of belonging in their communities, loving life, coping with stress in life, learning to be independent and autonomous, participating in public affairs and developing potentials.
  (10)The government should actively promote indiscriminative and barrier-free community living environment, allowing people with disabilities to develop in a dignified, humanized environment and being given adequate opportunities for social participation and for realizing their potentials.
  (11)The government should protect the rights of people with disabilities to get education, employment, residence, and medical care, enabling them to make smooth transitions, and should incorporate the resources of private sector to provide them with support services, economic security, and personal and property protection.
  (12)The government and the private sector should integrate social welfare, health and medical, education and other related resources to create a senior-friendly environment, safeguarding the dignity, autonomy, well-being, and safety of elderlies.
  (13)The government should join forces with the private sector to promote active aging, to encourage elderlies to participate in the society, to provide education and learning opportunities, to increase the ability to adopt and make adjustment in life and to enrich the life in old age. The government is to strengthen inter-generational interaction, to advocate family values, to encourage generational transmittal, and to build a senior-friendly, age-integrated society.
  (14)The government should center on home- and community-based services and assist with institution-based services in taking care of seniors and the disabled.
  (15)The government should incorporate private resources in providing family support services and measures, in enhancing the caring capacity of a family and the educational function of a parent, in relieving a family’s caring and parenting pressures and in preventing and solving family problems.
  (16)The government should demonstrate gender awareness when implementing welfare services and measures and should carry out impact assessments prior to drawing up policies in order to ensure gender equality and to eliminate gender discrimination.
  (17)The government should reinforce the integration of and the coordination and collaboration among judicial, police, social affairs, health, education, labor and house registration systems, constructing a safety network against gender violence, perfecting the laws on the protection of personal safety of the general public, tightening the restraining and the controlling of offenders, strengthening the protection of victims and ensuring personal safety, dignity and rights of victims.
  (18)On the distinctiveness in geographical environment, culture and language in aboriginal areas, the government should actively integrate social welfare, education, and health and medical departments, should set up region-adjusted welfare services and measures, should enhance the efficiency in delivering welfare services and should reduce the discrepancy in the distribution of welfare resources between urban and rural areas, building an equal and just society that respects cultural differences and ensures the well-being of aboriginals.
  (19)The government should respect servicemen’s contribution to the country and the society and should provide assistance and relief to help improving the quality of living of underprivileged veterans and their families and surviving family members.
  (20)The government and the private sector should reinforce social work manpower with proper allocation and utilization, should establish the mechanisms for the training of social work manpower, classified and tiered salary standards, and safeguard measures concerning social workers in protective services, should strengthen the fostering of international social work talent, raising the quality of professional services, and should perfect the professional system in social work.  

四、健康與醫療照護


  (一)政府應致力促進及保護全民健康,積極推動弱勢國民健康照護與健康維護方案,以縮短國民間的健康差距,建立支持性的高齡友善環境。
  (二)政府應加強衛政、社政、勞政、環保、教育、交通等行政部門的協調與合作,創造支持性社會環境,營造樂活社區、健康城市、健康學校,及健康職場,培養國人健康生活型態,加強國人健康狀況及影響因素之監測,並強化疾病的預防保健。
  (三)政府應強化國家防疫安全,儲備防疫物資,提升疫病流行應變能力,並持續推動傳染病防治各項措施,免除全民疫病威脅。
  (四)政府應促進醫療資源合理分配,建構整合性、連續性照護模式,營造以病人中心就醫安全環境,並結合資訊科技,推動智慧醫療,確保國民醫療服務品質與效率。
  (五)政府應建構食品藥物安全管理體系,落實源頭管理、消費者保護及風險管理,並接軌國際食品藥物安全訊息及審查機制。
  (六)政府應持續推動全民健保改革,確保健保永續經營、排除弱勢族群就醫障礙、導入促進國民健康並提升醫療服務品質的措施,強化醫療資訊透明。
  (七)政府應健全長期照護體制,充實長照服務人力與資源,強化服務輸送體系,增進服務品質,縮減城鄉差距,並積極推動相關立法工作。
  (八)政府應持續發展醫藥衛生科技研究,促進國際科技交流合作,以精進生醫科技水準,並發展生醫科技產業。
  (九)政府應積極參與國際衛生福利組織各項活動及會議,並積極進行國際雙邊及多邊之衛生福利合作、援助及交流。
  (十)政府應厚植衛生人力,並辦理教育訓練及進修,以提升衛生人力質量,並強化國際醫療衛生人才之培訓。
  (十一)政府應持續強化醫療衛生防救災應變效能,賡續辦理緊急醫療、心理衛生與防疫監控等災害應變各階段整備與處置事宜。      
  (十二)政府應維護國民心理健康,積極推動國民心理健康促進服務,落實自殺防治策略及行動,建構並強化精神衛生與醫療服務、社區心理衛生與精神照護等網絡,建立成癮物質濫用之防治體系,強化家庭暴力及性侵害加害人之醫療處遇效能。
  D. Health and Medical Care
  (1)The government should focus on facilitating and guarding the health of citizens, actively implementing programs that care for and maintain the health of disadvantaged citizens, to shorten the health gap among citizens and to build a supportive, senior-friendly environment.
  (2)The government should strengthen the coordination and collaboration among health, social affairs, labor, environment, education, and transportation departments, should create supportive social environment, should build LOHAS communities and healthy cities, schools and workplace, should develop healthy lifestyles among citizens, should reinforce the monitoring of health statuses of citizens and of influencing factors and should enhance illness prevention and care.
  (3)The government should reinforce the country’s disease control and prevention, should stock up goods and materials for disease control and prevention, should enhance response capabilities against the spread of diseases and should continue to push forward measures on infectious disease prevention, relieving citizens from the threats of disease.
  (4)The government should further reasonable allocation of medical resources, should establish integrated, continuous models of care, should build patient-centered environment for patient safety and should incorporate information technologies to practice smart medical care, ensuring the quality and the efficiency of medical services for citizens.
  (5)The government should construct the system for food and drug administration, carrying out the management of sources, the protection of consumers, and the control of risks, and should link up with international food and drug safety information and review mechanisms.
  (6)The government should continue to push forward the NHI reform, ensuring the sustainable operations of the NHI, removing obstacles hindering disadvantaged groups from getting medical treatment, introducing measures that facilitate the health of citizens and improve the quality of medical services and strengthening the transparency of medical information.
  (7)The government should perfect the long-term care system, strengthening the manpower and resources in long-term care, should reinforce the service delivery system, enhancing the quality of services and reducing the gap between urban and rural areas, and should actively push forward related legislative works.
  (8)The government should continue to develop researches on medicine and health-related technology and should facilitate international technology exchange and cooperation to advance the level of biomedical technology and to develop the biomedical technology industry.
  (9)The government should enthusiastically participate in activities and conferences of international health and welfare organizations and should actively conduct international bilateral/multilateral cooperation, aid and interaction in health and welfare.
  (10)To boost the quality of health manpower and to strengthen the training of international medical and health talent, the government should extensively cultivate health manpower, conducting education and training and advanced studies.
  (11)The government should continue to reinforce the medical and health sector’s efficacy of response regarding disaster prevention and rescue, further conducting preparedness and management-related matters concerning stages of disaster response, such as emergency medical services, mental health, and epidemic prevention and monitoring.
  (12)The government should safeguard the psychological health of citizens, actively implementing services facilitative to citizens’ psychological health for prevention of suicide, establishing and reinforcing networks on mental health and medical services, community mental health, and mental care, setting up a prevention system against substance abuse and strengthening the efficacy of medical treatment of domestic violence and sexual assault offenders.  

五、就業安全


  (一)政府應強化勞動者之社會保障,使其能充分就業、公平參與經濟與社會活動,工作權利不受歧視,提升工作福祉。
  (二)政府應結合民間加強社政、勞政、教育、法務、原住民與經濟行政部門的協調與合作,建立就業安全體系,強化教育、職業訓練、產業發展與人才需求間的連結,提升人力資本投資的效益。
  (三)政府應積極鼓勵雇主僱用本國勞工,以保障國人就業機會,除為補充本國勞動力之不足,不得引進外籍勞工,並應積極創造多元就業機會以促進國民就業。
  (四)政府應整合失業給付、職業訓練與就業服務體系,健全就業與轉業輔導,流通就業資訊管道,促進就業媒合,以利國民參與勞動市場。
  (五)政府應保障勞工之勞動基準,確保就業安全,同時亦應因應勞動市場彈性化的趨勢,促進充分就業及保障勞工勞動權益。
  (六)政府應推動事業單位辦理符合營運發展所需之職能訓練,提供在職者進修、訓練機會,以提升在職勞工之職場競爭力,達到強化預防性失業之效果。
  (七)政府應積極協助勞工運用就業服務、職業訓練、技能檢定及補助措施等資源,提升其職業能力及工作所得,以協助勞工脫離工作貧窮之困境。
  (八)政府應有效結合社會資源,積極投入職業安全衛生工作,為勞工營造一個免於職業危害之工作環境;並提供職業災害勞工社會復健、職能復健及職業重建之必要協助。
  (九)政府應積極開發、運用各項就業促進工具,強化弱勢就業族群及長期失業者等之就業能力,協助其就業,保障其經濟生活安全,降低就業轉銜之風險。
  (十)政府應針對原住民族各族群之文化特色,推動符合族群特性之職業訓練、就業服務、就業與創業機會。
  (十一)政府應結合社會資源及產業脈動,加強退除役官兵就業輔導,對其退除役後之專業技能訓練給予適當協助,並建立推介媒合機制,以提升職場能力及拓展多元就業管道。
  E. Employment Security
  (1)The government should reinforce social protection of labor, enabling adequate employment and fair participation in economic and social activities, ensuring indiscriminative right to work and improving labor welfare.
  (2)The government should join forces with the private sector to augment the coordination and cooperation among departments in charge of education, justice, and social, labor, indigenous and economic affairs, to establish the system on employment security and to strengthen the connection among education, occupational training, industry development, and the demand for talent, enhancing the effectiveness of human capital investment.
  (3)The government should actively encourage the hiring of native workers by employers to safeguard the employment opportunity of citizens, prohibiting the import of foreign workers except for complementing the country’s deficiencies in labor force, and should actively create diverse work opportunities to promote the employment of citizens.
  (4)To facilitate citizen participation in the labor market, the government should integrate unemployment benefits, occupational training and employment service systems, should perfect employment and career change counseling, should keep smooth channels for employment information and should promote employment matching.
  (5)The government should safeguard labor standards applying to workers, ensuring employment security, and at the same time, should promote adequate employment and protect labor rights of workers in responding to the trends in flexible labor market.
  (6)The government should encourage organizations to conduct occupational trainings needed for operational developments and to provide on-the-job studying and training opportunities to increase the competitiveness of current workers in the workplace, achieving a reinforcing effect on precautionary unemployment.
  (7)The government should actively assist workers in utilizing available resources, such as employment services, occupational training, skills certification, and subsidiary measures, increasing their vocational competence and income, to help workers escape the working-poor predicament.
  (8)The government should effectively integrate social resources, actively putting effort into the work of occupational safety and health, to create a working environment that is free of occupational hazard for workers, and the government is to provide workers who have suffered occupational accidents with necessary assistance, such as for social rehabilitation, occupational rehabilitation, and vocational reconstruction.
  (9)The government should actively develop and utilize employment facilitation instruments, strengthening work capabilities of disadvantaged employment groups and the long-term unemployed to help them find jobs, to safeguard their economic and living security and to reduce the risks in job transition.
  (10)Regarding cultural features of indigenous peoples, the government should specifically implement occupational trainings, employment services, and employment and entrepreneurial opportunities that conform to their respective ethnic characteristics.
  (11)The government should integrate social resources and industry transformations, should reinforce employment counseling of veterans, providing appropriate assistance for the training of professional skills following their discharges from the military, and should establish referral and matching mechanisms to enhance workplace competence and to expand and diversify employment channels.

六、居住正義與社區營造


  (一)政府為保障國民有適居之住宅,對於有居住需求之家庭或個人,應提供適宜之協助,其方式包含提供補貼住宅之貸款利息、租金或修繕費用。
  (二)政府應結合民間,以各種優惠方式,鼓勵民間參與興辦專供出租之社會住宅,除提供適當比例租予具特殊情形或身分者外,並提供外地就業、就學青年等對象租住。
  (三)政府應確保社會住宅所在之社區有便利之交通、資訊、社會服務等支持系統,以利居民滿足生活各面向之需求。
  (四)政府提供之社會住宅,應保留一定空間作為福利服務或社區活動之用。
  (五)政府對於因重大災難造成之房屋損害,應有妥善之社區與住宅重建計畫。
  (六)政府應鼓勵社區居民參與社區發展,活化社區組織,利用在地資源,營造活力自主永續的公民社會。
  (七)政府應整合觀光旅遊、工商業、農漁業、文化產業、環境保護、城鄉發展、文化資產、教育、衛生、社會福利等資源推動社區家園永續發展。
  (八)政府應保存農村文化,改善農村生活、生產及生態環境。
  (九)政府應結合原住民族部落文化與生態特色,推動新部落總體營造工程。
  F. Housing Justice and Community Building
  (1)To ensure suitable housing for citizens, the government should provide appropriate assistance to families or individuals with housing needs, including the providing of mortgage, rental and renovation subsidies.
  (2)The government should join forces with the private sector, encouraging the private sector’s participation in operating for-rent-only social housings through a variety of preferences. Besides providing an appropriate proportion of such social housings for rent by persons in special circumstances or of particular statuses, the government is also to rent them to youth working or studying away from home.
  (3)For communities where social housings are located, the government should ensure convenient supportive systems, including transportation, information, and social services, to better satisfy the needs of residents in all aspects of life.
  (4)Government-provided social housings should reserve sufficient spaces for welfare services or community activities.
  (5)On housing damage caused by major disasters, the government should have proper plans for community and housing reconstructions.
  (6)The government should encourage community residents to participate in community development, to activate community organizations and to utilize local resources, building a vigorous, autonomous, sustainable civil society.
  (7)The government should integrate resources of travel and tourism, commerce, agriculture and fishery, culture industry, environmental protection, urban/rural development, culture heritage, education, health, and social welfare to promote sustainable development of community homes.
  (8)The government should preserve rural culture and improve the living, production and ecological environments of rural areas.
  (9)The government should combine cultural and ecological features of indigenous tribes, implementing “new tribe comprehensive community building” projects.



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