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【名稱】


《兒童權利公約》


(Convention on the Rights of the Child)

【沿革】
‧聯合國大會一九八九年十一月二十日第四十四/二十五號決議通過並開放給各國簽字、批准和加入生效;按照第四十九條規定,於一九九○年九月二日生效(民國78年11月20日修正)
‧Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989 entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49

【章節索引】
第一章 §1
第二章 §42
第三章 §46

【前言】
  本公約之簽約國遵照聯合國憲章所揭示之原則,認為承認所有人類社會成員所擁有的固有尊嚴與平等之不可剝奪的權利,才能鞏固世界的自由、正義與和平之基礎。
  考慮聯合國各國國民再度確信在聯合國憲章之下,確保基本人權和人類尊嚴與價值之信心,以及在更大的自由中,促進社會進步與提高生活水準的決心。
  同意承認聯合國在世界人權宣言國際人權規約中所揭示,無論任何人不分種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政治或其他信念,國民或社會背景,財產、出生或其他地位之差別,均享有上述宣言與規約所揭示之所有權利與自由。
  強調聯合國在世界人權宣言中,宣稱兒童有權接受特別養護與協助的宣言。
  確信家庭為社會之基本團體,是所有成員特別是兒童成長與福祉之自然環境,故應獲得必要之保護與協助,才能使其在社區中充分擔當其責任。
  承認兒童應在家庭環境中,在幸福、愛情以及瞭解之氣氛中成長,才能使其人格得到充分和諧之發展。
  考慮兒童應受到充分之訓練,使其能在社會中過其個人獨立生活。並應在聯合國憲章所揭示之理想精神,特別是在和平、尊嚴、寬容、自由、平等以及團隊精神之下獲得培育成長。
  要留意擴充兒童特別養護工作之必要性。因為這是一九二四年有關兒童權利之日內瓦宣言,以及一九五九年聯合國所制訂之兒童權利宣言所強調,也是世界人權宣言,有關市民和政治權利之國際規約(特別是第二十三條以及第二十四條),有關經濟、社會與文化權利之國際規則(特別是第十條),以及有關兒童福祉之專門機構和國際機構之各種規程和相關文書所認同。
  要留意聯合國會員大會在一九五九年十一月二十日所制訂有關兒童權利宣言所揭示「兒童之身體和精神都在未成熟狀態,因此在其出生前後應獲得包括適當之法律等特別保護與養護條文。並應留意有關兒童保護與福祉之社會與法律原則之宣言條款(特別是關於養父母以及國內與國際收養制度),與聯合國有關少年受審司法最低標準規則(北京規則),以及有關緊急狀態與武力紛爭中保護女子與兒童宣言之各條款。
  在充分考慮保護兒童使其身心獲得均衡發展,並強調各國國民傳統與文化價值之重要前提下,一致認為要改善所有國家,尤其是開發中國家兒童之生活狀況,必須認識國際合作之重要性,因此同意訂定下列協定條款:
  The States Parties to the present Convention,
  Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
  Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
  Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,
  Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,
  Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,
  Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
  Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,
  Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10)and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children,
  Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth",
  Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules); and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration,
  Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child, Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries,
  Have agreed as follows:

回索引〉〉

第一章

第1條(兒童之定義)


  本公約所稱之「兒童」,係指所有未滿十八歲以下之人。然而適用於兒童之法律中,規定在十八歲以前就成為成年者不在此限。

Article 1


  For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

第2條(禁止差別待遇)


  一、簽約國不得因兒童本人或其父母或法定監護人之種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政治或其他主張、國籍、出身、財富、殘障、出生或其他地位之不同而有所歧視。應尊重並確保其轄區內每一兒童在本公約中所揭櫫之權利。
  二、簽約國應採取一切適當措施,確保兒童免於因父母、法定監護人或家族成員之地位、行為、主張或信念之關係而遭受各種差別待遇或處罰。

Article 2


  1.States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.
  2.States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.

第3條(兒童的最佳利益)


  一、所有關係兒童之事務,無論是否由公私社會福利機構、法院、行政當局或立法機關所主持,均應以兒童之最佳利益為優先考慮。
  二、簽約國應考慮兒童之父母、法定監護人或其他依法對兒童負有責任之個人所應有之權利與義務,確保兒童之福祉與必要之保護與照顧,並以適當之立法和行政措施達成此目的。
  三、簽約國應對負責照顧與保護兒童之機構、服務部門與設施,特別在安全與保健方面,以及該等機關內之工作人數與資格是否合適,且是否合乎有權監督機構所訂之標準,作嚴格之要求。

Article 3


  1.In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
  2.States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.
  3.States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.

第4條(權利的實施)


  簽約國應採取所有適當的立法、行政及其他措施,實現本公約所認定的各項權利。關於經濟、社會以及文化的權利方面,簽約國應利用其本國最大可用之資源,於必要時可以在國際合作組織體制下,採取各項措施。

Article 4


  States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention.With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.

第5條(父母及其他人員的指導)


  簽約國應尊重兒童之父母,或依其情節,因地方習俗所衍生的家屬或共同生活成員、其法定監護人或其他依法對其負責之人,以適合兒童身心發展的方式,對正確指導兒童行使本公約所承認的權利時所應有的責任、權利與義務。

Article 5


  States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.

第6條(生存和發展)


  一、簽約國承認兒童與生俱有之生存權利。
  二、簽約國應盡最大可能確保兒童的生存與發展。

Article 6


  1.States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.
  2.States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.

第7條(姓名與國籍)


  一、兒童於出生後應立即被登記,兒童出生時就應有取得姓名以及國籍的權利。在可能的範圍內有知其父母並受父母照顧等權利。
  二、當兒童無法取得其他國家國籍時,簽約國應根據其國家法令及其在相關的國際文件上所負的義務,讓兒童的前項權利確實實現。

Article 7


  1.The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and.as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.
  2.States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.

第8條(身分的保障)


  一、簽約國應尊重兒童的權利,以保障其國籍、姓名與親屬關係等等依法所享有的個人身分不受非法侵害。
  二、簽約國於兒童之任何個人權利受不法侵害時,應給予適當之協助與保護,俾迅速恢復其身分。

Article 8


  1.States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.
  2.Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.

第9條(禁止與雙親分離)


  一、簽約國得違反父母之意思,保護兒童不與其父母分離;但當局若經法院審查後循合法程序裁定兒童與其父母分離對該兒童為有利者,不在此限。兒童受父母虐待、遺棄或在父母離異時,該項裁決尤有其必要,此時,該兒童之住所應一併裁定。
  二、根據前項為法律訴訟時,各關係人均得出席並申訴意見。
  三、簽約國應尊重與父母任何一方或雙方分離時的兒童權利,使其能定期與父母直接接觸並保持私人關係;但因此違背該兒童之最佳利益者,不在此限。
  四、當分離係肇因於父母一方或雙方或兒童受扣押、監禁、放逐、驅逐出境或死亡(包括任何原因造成簽約國看管下之人的死亡)時,該簽約國受有請求時,應在不損害該兒童福祉的情況下,給予該父母、兒童或視其情節,給予其他家屬有關失蹤家屬下落的消息。惟簽約國應確保任何關係人不因該請求而蒙受不利。

Article 9


  1.States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child.Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child's place of residence.
  2.In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.
  3.States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests.
  4.Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State)of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s)of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child.States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s)concerned.

第10條(家族的團聚)


  一、兒童或其父母為團聚而請求進入或離開簽約國時,簽約國應遵照第九條第一項規定之義務以積極、人道與通融的方式處理之。簽約國並應確保請求人或其家屬不因該請求而蒙受不 利。
  二、父母分住於不同國家之兒童,除情況特殊者外,有權與其父母定期直接接觸保持私人關係。簽約國應遵照第九條第二項規定之義務,尊重兒童及其父母得離開任何國家,包括進出自己國家的權利。而出國之權利除依法且不違背公約所承認之其他權利,並為保障國家安全、公共秩序、公共衛生與道德以及他人之權利與自由者外,不得加以限制。

Article 10


  1.In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner.States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family.
  2.A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents.Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own, and to enter their own country.The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.

第11條(非法移送國外及非法不送還)


  一、簽約國應採取遏止非法移送兒童至國外或令其無法回國等情事之發生。
  二、簽約國應致力締結雙邊或多邊條約或參加現有的協約以達成前項遏止之目的。

Article 11


  1.States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.
  2.To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.

第12條(兒童的意見)


  一、簽約國應使有意思能力之兒童就與其自身有關事務有自由表意之權利,其所表示之意思應依其年齡大小與成熟程度予以權衡。
  二、據此,應特別給予兒童在對自己有影響之司法和行政訴訟中,能夠依照國家法律之程序規則,由其本人直接或透過代表或適當之團體,表達意見之機會。

Article 12


  1.States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
  2.For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

第13條(表現的自由)


  一、兒童應有自由表意之權利,該權利應包括以言辭、書寫或印刷、藝術形態或透過兒童自己決定的媒介,不受國境限制地尋取、接受、傳達任何資訊與意思。
  二、該項權利之行使仍應受法律規定與需要之限制。其限制僅在於達到下列目的所需要者為限。
  1‧為尊重他人之權利與名譽。
  2‧為保障國家安全或公共秩序或公共衛生與道德。

Article 13


  1.The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice.
  2.The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
  (a)For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or
  (b)For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.

第14條(思想、良知及信仰的自由)


  一、簽約國應尊重兒童思想、良知與宗教的自由權利。
  二、簽約國應尊重父母與依其情節之法定代理人以不影響兒童身心發展的方式,指導兒童行使權利時所應負的權利與義務。
  三、個人宣示其宗教與信仰的自由,僅受法律所規定者與保障公共安全、秩序、衛生或道德,或他人基本權利與自由所必需之限制。

Article 14


  1.States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
  2.States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.
  3.Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

第15條(集會、結社的自由)


  一、簽約國承認兒童有結社與和平集會之自由。
  二、除依法在民主社會中為國家安全或為保障公共安全、社會秩序、公共衛生或道德或他人之權益與自由者外,不得對該等權益之行使予以限制。

Article 15


  1.States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.
  2.No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

第16條(保護隱私權)


  一、兒童之隱私、家庭、住家或信函不可恣意或非法干預,其信用與名譽亦不可受到非法侵害。
  二、兒童對此等干預或侵害有依法受保障的權利。

Article 16


  1.No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
  2.The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

第17條(適當資訊的利用)


  簽約國承認大眾傳播有其重要功能,故應保證兒童可自國家或國際各方面獲得資訊,尤其是為提升社會、精神與道德福祉與身心健康方面的資訊。為此簽約國應:
  一、要鼓勵有益兒童發展之社會與文化,與實現第二十九條主旨之資訊與資料等大眾傳播媒體能夠普及。
  二、鼓勵來自文化、國家、國際各方面有關此等資訊的編製、交換與傳播的國際合作。
  三、鼓勵兒童書籍之出版與普及。
  四、鼓勵大眾傳播對少數民族或原住民兒童語言上的需要予以特別關注。
  五、注意第十三條及第十八條之規定,鼓勵發展保護兒童使其不受有害兒童福祉之資訊傷害的適當指導方針。

Article 17


  States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health.
  To this end, States Parties shall:
  (a)Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;
  (b)Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;
  (c)Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books;
  (d)Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;
  (e)Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.

第18條(父母的責任)


  一、簽約國應努力使養育兒童是父母共同責任的原則獲得大家認同。父母或依其情節之法定監護人應負養育兒童之主要責任。此時,兒童的最佳利益尤其應該成為他們最關心之事。
  二、為保證與提升本公約所揭示之權利,簽約國應給予父母與法定監護人在擔負養育兒童責任時予以適當之協助,並保證照顧兒童之機構、設備與部門業務之發展。
  三、簽約國應提供一切適當措施保證父母均在工作之兒童,有權享有托育服務與托育設備之權利。

Article 18


  1.States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child.Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child.The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.
  2.For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.
  3.States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.

第19條(防止遭受虐待及遺棄的保護措施)


  一、簽約國應採取一切立法、行政.社會與教育措施防止兒童在其父母、法定監護人或其他照顧兒童之人照顧時遭受身心脅迫、傷害或虐待、遺棄或疏忽之對待以及包括性強暴的不當待遇或剝削。
  二、該等保護措施,依其情節應包括提供兒童與照顧兒童之人所需要的各種社會計畫,其他形態的有效防患措施,與上述對待兒童與不當的事件的發現、報告、參酌、調查、處理與追蹤措施。依其情節應包括有關司法訴訟的有效協助。

Article 19


  1.States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s)or any other person who has the care of the child.
  2.Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.

第20條(保護喪失家庭環境的兒童)


  一、兒童暫時或永久喪失家庭環境.或因顧及其本身最大利益無法使其留於家庭環境時,簽約國應給予特別之保護與協助。
  二、簽約國應依其國家法律確實給予該等兒童相同的替代照顧。
  三、該照顧應包括安排認養、依回教教義收養或必要時安置其於適當機構以盡監護兒童之責任。當選擇處理方式時,應考慮養育兒童的工作能夠持續不斷,以及兒童之種族、宗教、文化和語言背景等,予以妥切處理。

Article 20


  1.A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State.
  2.States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child.
  3.Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children.When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.

第21條(收養制度)


  承認或允許收養制度的簽約國應保證對兒童的最佳利益給予最大關切,這些國家應:
  一、保證兒童之收養僅得由合法之機關許可。該機關應依據可適用之法律和程序以及所有可靠的有關資訊,並考慮與父母、親戚與法定監護人有密切關係之兒童狀況,設定養子關係。必要時,關係人得依據必要的輔導過程,經過充分瞭解後,同意該收養關係。
  二、在無法為兒童安排收養家庭,或無法在祖國給予適當照顧時,承認國家間的收養為照顧兒童的另一種方式。
  三、保證國家間所收養的兒童,享有與在國內被收養的兒童相同水準的保障與待遇。
  四、採取一切措施保證在國家間的收養安排,不會造成任何關係人取得不當財務利益。
  五、依其情況,可藉由雙邊或多邊協議或契約的締結促使本條款的目標得以實現,並在此種體制下,使寄養在其他國家的兒童得以由合法的機關安排收養。

Article 21


  States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:
  (a)Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child's status concerning parents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;
  (b)Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child's care, if the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child's country of origin;
  (c)Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption;
  (d)Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain for those involved in it;
  (e)Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements, and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs.

第22條(難民兒童)


  一、簽約國應採取一切措施保證尋求難民身分,或依可得適用之國際或國內法律或程序被認為難民的兒童,不論是否與其父母或其他人隨行,在享有本公約及該簽約國所參加的其他國際人權公約或人道文契中所揭示的相當權利時,獲得適當的保護與人道協助。
  二、為此,簽約國應在其認為適當的情形下,配合聯合國及其他合法政府間或與聯合國有合作關係的機構共同努力保護並協助兒童。此外,並應為難民兒童尋找其父母或其他家人使其得以團圓。如無法找尋其父母或其他家屬時,則應給予該兒童與本公約所揭示之永久或暫時喪失家庭環境兒童相同之保護。

Article 22


  1.States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties.
  2.For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family.In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason , as set forth in the present Convention.

第23條(殘障兒童的福利)


  一、簽約國承認身心殘障兒童,應在確保其尊嚴,促進自立與積極參加社區生活之環境下,享受充分適宜之生活。
  二、簽約國承認殘障兒童有受特別照顧之權利,並應獎勵在可能利用之資源範圍內,針對有資格接受資助之兒童,以及負有養育兒童責任者所申請之援助,給予適合其狀況之協助。
  三、要承認殘障兒童之特別照顧,並依據第二項中規定之協助項目,在考慮父母或其他照顧兒童人士之財力情況下,盡可能給予完全免費之服務。其協助應以保障殘障者能夠全面參加社會活動,並有效利用教育、訓練、保健服務、復健服務、職業訓練以及休閒機會,以達成個人在文化與精神上之發展為原則。
  四、簽約國必須遵照國際合作之精神,針對殘障兒童之預防保健,以及醫學上、心理學上和功能之治療等領域有關資訊。作適當之交換。其中應包括簽約國為提升殘障兒童之能力與技術,擴大其經驗所需要之復健教育以及就業服務有關資訊之普及。對開發中國家之需要,尤其應特別加以考慮。

Article 23


  1.States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child's active participation in the community.
  2.States Parties recognize the right of the disabled child to special care and shall encourage and ensure the extension, subject to available resources, to the eligible child and those responsible for his or her care, of assistance for which application is made and which is appropriate to the child's condition and to the circumstances of the parents or others caring for the child.
  3.Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child, assistance extended in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall be provided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the financial resources of the parents or others caring for the child, and shall be designed to ensure that the disabled child has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive to the child's achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development, including his or her cultural and spiritual development
  4.States Parties shall promote, in the spirit of international cooperation, the exchange of appropriate information in the field of preventive health care and of medical, psychological and functional treatment of disabled children, including dissemination of and access to information concerning methods of rehabilitation, education and vocational services, with the aim of enabling States Parties to improve their capabilities and skills and to widen their experience in these areas.In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

第24條(醫療和保健服務)


  一、簽約國承認兒童享有最高水準之健康醫療服務,並獲得治療疾病以及恢復健康之權利。簽約國要保證所有兒童利用保健服務之權利不會遭到剝奪。
  二、簽約國為促使這些權利完全實現,應特別針對左列事項採取適當之措施:
  1‧降低嬰兒與兒童之死亡率。
  2‧把重點放在基本衛生照顧上,並保證提供所有兒童所必需之醫療協助和保健服務。
  3‧隨時注意環境污染之危險性,並在基本衛生照顧之體系下,特別利用可能之技術,提供兒童具有充分營養價值之食物,和乾淨之飲用水,藉以防止疾病與營養不良之情事發生。
  4‧保證母親獲得產前產後之適當保健服務。
  5‧提供所有社會成員,尤其是父母和兒童,有關兒童健康和營養:母乳營養之好處保健衛生和環境衛生;以及防止意外事故之基本知識。除施行有關之教育外,並協助利用有關之資訊。
  6‧發展預防保健以及對父母之指導和家庭計畫之教育等服務。
  三、簽約國應採取一切有效之適當措施,革除對兒童健康有害之傳統習慣。
  四、簽約國為使本條文所認定之權利能夠逐漸達成,要鼓勵並促進國際合作。
  尤其應特別考慮開發中國家之需要。

Article 24


  1.States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health.States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.
  2.States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures:
  (a)To diminish infant and child mortality;
  (b)To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with emphasis on the development of primary health care;
  (c)To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution;
  (d)To ensure appropriate pre-natal and post-natal health care for mothers;
  (e)To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents;
  (f)To develop preventive health care, guidance for parents and family planning education and services.
  3.States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children.
  4.States Parties undertake to promote and encourage international co-operation with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the right recognized in the present article.In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

第25條(收容兒童的定期審查)


  簽約國承認兒童為身體或精神的養護、保護或治療為目的,被有權限之機構收容時,對其所受之待遇,以及收容有關之其他一切情況,有要求定期審查的權利。

Article 25


  States Parties recognize the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of the treatment provided to the child and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement.

第26條(社會保障)


  一、簽約國應承認所有兒童有接受包括社會保險之社會保障給付之權利。並應採取必要措施,使其權利能夠依據國內法之規定完全達成。
  二、該項給付應依其情節,並考慮兒童以及負有扶養兒童責任者之財力狀況,或兒童本人與代替兒童申請給付時有關之其他狀況,作為決定給付之參考。

Article 26


  1.States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law.
  2.The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child, as well as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child.

第27條(生活水準)


  一、簽約國應承認所有兒童有為其身體、精神、道德以及社會之正常發展,獲得相當水準之生活之權利。
  二、父母或其他對兒童負有責任者,應在其能力與財力許可範圍內,保證兒童成長發展所必需之生活條件。
  三、簽約國應依照國內之條件,在財力許可範圍內,支援父母以及其他對兒童負有責任者,完成此項責任時所必需之適當措施。必要時,特別對營養、衣服以及住所,提供必要之物質援助與支援措施。
  四、簽約國為使父母以及其他對兒童負有財務責任者償還兒童之養育費,不管其居住在國內或國外,應採取一切適當之措施。對兒童負有財務責任者居住在與兒童不同國家時,簽約國尤須要透過參加並締結國際協定,或訂定其他適當之協議,使其償還養育費。

Article 27


  1.States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.
  2.The parent(s)or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child's development.
  3.States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.
  4.States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the child from the parents or other persons having financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Party and from abroad.In particular, where the person having financial responsibility for the child lives in a State different from that of the child, States Parties shall promote the accession to international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other appropriate arrangements.

第28條(教育)


  一、簽約國承認兒童有接受教育之權利,為使此項權利能夠在平等之機會下逐漸實現,特別要實現下列事項:
  1‧實施初等教育義務化政策,使所有人均能免費接受初等教育。
  2‧鼓勵各種形態之中等教育,包括普通教育與職業教育,使所有兒童均能進入就讀。並應試辦免費教育,必要時得以採取財力上之協助等適當措施。
  3‧要採取所有適當措施,使高等教育能夠依照各人之能力,成為每個人均能利用之教育機構。
  4‧使每個兒童均能利用教育與職業上之資訊和輔導。
  5‧採取獎勵措施,提高到校定期上課之出席率,並降低中途輟學比率。
  二、簽約國應採取一切措施,保證學校校規之內容與兒童人權尊嚴不相違背,並保證遵照此條約之規定執行。
  三、簽約國應關心教育問題,尤其應對消除全世界無知與文盲有所貢獻。此外,為使科學技術、知識及最新教育方法得以普及使用,要獎勵並促進國際間之含作。關於這個問題,特別應考慮開發中國家之需要。

Article 28


  1.States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular:
  (a)Make primary education compulsory and available free to all;
  (b)Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;
  (c)Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;
  (d)Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children;
  (e)Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates.
  2.States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child's human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention.
  3.States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods.In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

第29條(教育目的)


  一、簽約國同意下列兒童教育之目標:
  1‧使兒童之人格、才能以及精神、身體之潛能獲得最大極限之發展。
  2‧發展尊重人權、基本自由以及聯合國憲章所揭櫫各種原則之理念。
  3‧培養對兒童之父母、兒童本身文化之同一性,語言口與價值,以及兒童所居住之國家和其出生國之國民價值觀,還有對與自己之文明迥異之其他文明,持有尊重之觀念。
  4‧培養兒童能夠以理解、和平、寬容、兩性平等,以及所有人民種族、國民以及宗教團體。或原住民之間友好共處之精神,使兒童得以在自由之社會中,過負責任之生活。
  5‧發展兒童尊重自然環境之觀念。
  二、本條與第二十八條之所有規定,必須完全遵守本條1所規定之原則:在各教育機構所施行之教育,也必須適合國家所規定之最低標準。上述規定不應被解釋為妨礙個人以及團體設置管理教育機構自由之行為。

Article 29


  1.States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to:
  (a)The development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential;
  (b)The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;
  (c)The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;
  (d)The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin;
  (e)The development of respect for the natural environment.
  2.No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State.

第30條(少數民族與原住民兒童)


  在種族、宗教或語言上有少數人民,或有原住民之國家中,這些屬於少數民族或原住民之兒童,應該和構成此團體之其他成員一樣,得以享有自己之文化,信仰並實踐自己之宗教,使用自己之語言。此種權利絕不能被否定。

Article 30


  In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.

第31條(休閒、娛樂及文化活動)


  一、簽約國承認兒童擁有休閒及餘暇之權利;有從事適合其年齡之遊戲和娛樂活動之權利,以及自由參加文化生活與藝術之權利。
  二、簽約國應尊重、促進兒童全力參與文化與藝術生活之權利,並應鼓勵提供適當之文化、藝術、娛樂以及休閒活動之平等機會。

Article 31


  1.States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.
  2.States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity.

第32條(保護兒童免受經濟剝削)


  一、簽約國承認兒童有免受經濟剝削之權利,和避免從事妨礙其接受教育機會,或對兒童健康與身體土、心理土、精神上、道德上與社會發展上有害之勞動之權利。
  二、簽約國為確實保證本條文之實施,應採取立法、行政、社會和教育措施。 因此,簽約國應參照其他國際文件中之有關條款,並特別從事下列工作:
  1‧規定單一或兩個以上之最低就業年齡。
  2‧訂定有關工作時間和工作條件之適當規則。
  3‧為保證本條款之有效實施,要規定適當罰則和其他制裁方法。

Article 32


  1.States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
  2.States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of the present article.To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular:
  (a)Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment;
  (b)Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment;
  (c)Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the present article.

第33條(保護兒童不受麻醉藥品和精神擾亂劑之危害)


  簽約國應採取一切包括立法、行政、社會以及教育之適當措施,保護兒童不受有關國際條約所訂定之麻醉藥品和精神擾亂劑之侵害,並防止利用兒童從事非法製造與買賣這些物質。

Article 33


  States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislative, administrative, social and educational measures, to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as defined in the relevant international treaties, and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances.

第34條(保護避免受到性剝削)


  簽約國保證要保護兒童不受任何形態的性剝削和性迫害。因此簽約國應採取包括國內、兩國之間,或多國之間之適當措施,防止下列事情發生:
  一、引誘或強迫兒童從事非法之性行為。
  二、剝削並利用兒童從事賣淫或其他違法之性工作。
  三、剝削並利用兒童從事色情表演或作為色情之題材。

Article 34


  States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent:
  (a)The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;
  (b)The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;
  (c)The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.

第35條(防止誘拐買賣、交易)


  簽約國應採取一切適當之國內、兩國間或多國之間之措施,防止兒童受到任何方式或任何目的之誘拐、買賣或交易活動。

Article 35


  States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.

第36條(避免其他各種形式之剝削)


  簽約國應保護兒童使其免受有害其福祉之各種形式之剝削。

Article 36


  States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child's welfare.

第37條(禁止刑求及剝奪自由)


  簽約國應保證:
  一、所有兒童均不受刑訊或殘忍、不人道,或有損兒童品格之處置或刑罰。也不得對十八歲以下之罪犯科以死刑,或不可能獲得釋放之無期徒刑。
  二、所有兒童均不受非法或用恣意之方法剝奪他們之自由。
  三、對喪失自由之兒童,除應以人道和尊重其人性尊嚴對待外,並應考慮其年齡之需要作適當之處理。對喪失自由之兒童,除非認為喪失自由之兒童與成年人相處較為有利,否則應與成年人隔離。又除非有例外之事情發生,兒童應該擁有與家人通信、見面與接觸之權利。
  四、所有被剝奪自由之兒童,有迅速受到法律以及其他適當協助之權利,並有權就其自由被剝奪之合法性,在法院或其他具有權限之獨立、公平機構提出抗辯,並要求作迅速之判決。

Article 37


  States Parties shall ensure that:
  (a)No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age;
  (b)No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily.The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;
  (c)Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age.In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child's best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;
  (d)Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.

第38條(從武力紛爭中獲得保障)


  一、簽約國在發生武力紛爭時,應該尊重適用於本國有關國際人道法之規定,並應保證確實會尊重這些規定。
  二、簽約國應採取一切可行措施,保證十五歲以下之兒童不會直接參加戰鬥行為。
  三、簽約國應禁止徵召未滿十五歲之兒童入伍。簽約國在徵召十五歲至未滿十八歲兒童入伍時,應盡量讓年紀較大者優先入伍。
  四、簽約國應遵照國際人道法之規定,有義務保護非戰鬥人員,並採取一切可行之措施,保護和照顧受武力紛爭影響之兒童。

Article 38


  1.States Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for rules of international humanitarian law applicable to them in armed conflicts which are relevant to the child.
  2.States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities.
  3.States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces.In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, States Parties shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest.
  4.In accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts, States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.

第39條(身心健康之恢復以及社會重整)


  簽約國應採取一切適當措施使遭受任何形式之疏忽、剝削或虐待之兒童:或遭受拷問以及其他各種虐待之不人道對待,或損傷其品格之處置以及遭受刑罰而犧牲之兒童:或遇到武力紛爭而受到波及之兒童,能夠恢復其身體和精神上之健康,並促進其社會重整。此種恢復與重整,需要在能夠培育兒童之健康,自尊心與尊嚴之環境下才能達成。

Article 39


  States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflicts.Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child.

第40條(少年司法)


  一、簽約國對觸犯刑法而被起訴、問罪,或被認定為有罪的兒童,要承認他有權利要求合乎提升其尊嚴與價值之處置方式。此種方式應考慮能夠加強兒童對他人之人權與基本自由之尊重,並適合兒童年齡之差別,與對兒童之社會重整和促進其擔任建設社會之角色有所貢獻為準。
  二、簽約國為達成此目的,應注意有關國際文件之條款,並特別保證下列事項:
  1‧任何兒童均不得因在他實際行為發生時,國內或國際法並無禁止其行為或不行為為理由,而被認為涉嫌違反刑法,其至被追訴或被認定有罪。
  2‧被指控觸犯刑事法而被問罪或被確定有罪之兒童,至少應保證下列各種事項:
  (1)依據法律證明有罪,否則應認定為無罪。
  (2)對其被懷疑之事實能夠直接迅速被告知。或在適當情況下經由父母或法定監護人告知本人。在準備自我辯護以及提出抗辯之際,亦應受到法律或其他適當之協助。
  (3)在依據公正之法律審理,和法律或其他適當協助下,並經特別考慮兒童之年齡與其狀況,認為會損及其最佳利益者外,要在兒童之父母或法定監護人出席之下,經有權限之獨立、公平機構或司法機關,毫不延遲地作迅速裁決。
  (4)不得被迫作證或自白。可以對不利於自己之證人提出質問。並可以在平等之條件下,要求對自己有利之證人出席與詢問。
  (5)被認為觸犯刑法時,對其認定與結果之處置,必須依據法律,並經有權限之較高級獨立、公平機關或司法機關再審理。
  (6)要讓兒童瞭解審理機關所使用之語言。若為兒童不會使用之約語言時,應提供免費之翻譯。
  (7)在訴訟之全部過程中,應充分尊重兒童之隱私。
  三、簽約國應為觸犯刑法而被起訴、問罪、或被認定為有罪之兒童,特別設置適用之法律,程序與機構設施。並應特別注意下列事項:
  1‧要規定無觸犯刑事能力之最低年齡。
  2‧最適當、最好之方法是,要建立使兒童能在充分尊重人權與法律保障之下,不必經由司法程序而作適當處理之途徑。
  四、為保證合乎兒童福祉,並以適合兒童之狀況和犯罪之情況作適當之處理,應採取養護、輔導以及監督命令、觀護、認養、教育以及職業訓練計畫,和代替設施內養護等各種措施。

Article 40


  1.States Parties recognize the right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child's sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child's respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of others and which takes into account the child's age and the desirability of promoting the child's reintegration and the child's assuming a constructive role in society.
  2.To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that:
  (a)No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed;
  (b)Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:
  (i)To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;
  (ii)To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence;
  (iii)To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians;
  (iv)Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;
  (v)If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;
  (vi)To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used;
  (vii)To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings.
  3.States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:
  (a)The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;
  (b)Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.
  4.A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.

第41條(既有利益之確保)


  本公約之任何規定,不得影響下列規定中,對兒童權利之實現有更大貢獻之條款規定:
  一、簽約國之法令。
  二、在簽約國具有效力之國際法。

Article 41


  Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the realization of the rights of the child and which may be contained in:
  (a)The law of a State party; or
  (b)International law in force for that State.

回索引〉〉

第二章

第42條(公約的宣傳)


  簽約國保證以適當積極方法,使成年人和兒童同樣知道本公約之各項原則與條款。

Article 42


  States Parties undertake to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known, by appropriate and active means, to adults and children alike.

第43條(有關兒童權利委員會)


  一、為檢討簽約國實現本公約所約定之義務之進展情形,設置有關兒童權利之委員會。委員會並執行規定之各項任務。
  二、委員會由十位德高望眾,而且對本公約領域有高度素養之專家所構成。委員會委員由簽約國從簽約國國民中選出,並以個人身分擔任職務。委員之選出應考慮地區之公平分配,以及主要之法律體系作適當之調整。
  三、委員會委員,由簽約國就其提名名單中,以不記名投票之方式選出。每一簽約國得自其國民中提名一位候選人。
  四、委員會之首次選舉,應於本公約生效後六個月內舉行,以後每兩年舉行一次。聯合國祕書長應於選舉日四個月前以書面通知各簽約國,要求在兩個月內把各國提名名單送齊。再由祕書長依英文字母順序將所有名單編冊(載明提名之簽約國),遂給各簽約國。
  五、委員選舉由聯合國祕書長召集,並在聯合國本部舉行之簽約國會議上舉行。會議需有三分之二以上簽約國出席。並以獲得出席投票最多數且超過半數之候選人為當選之委員。
  六、委員會委員之任期為四年。委員如再獲提名,得再連任。不過首次選出之委員中,有五個委員之任期在二年就應終止。這五個委員在首次選舉後,由會議主席以抽籤方式決定。
  七、委員會委員死亡或辭職,或由於其他理由無法繼續執行其任務時,提名該委員之簽約國應從其國民中派其他專家,經委員會同意後,就未滿期限繼續任職。
  八、委員會應訂定程序規則。
  九、委員會應選任職員,其任期為兩年。
  十、委員會會議原則上在聯合國總部或委員會決定認為適當之地方舉行。委員會會議通常每年舉行一次。委員會會期由本公約簽約國會議決議後,經由聯合國會員大會承認,必要時得作檢討改變。
  十一、為使委員會有效執行本公約所規定之各項任務,聯合國祕書長應提供所需要之人員與設備。
  十二、本公約斯設之委員會委員,經由聯合國會員大會之同意,並依據會員大會所決定之條件,從聯合國之資金中獲得酬勞。

Article 43


  1.For the purpose of examining the progress made by States Parties in achieving the realization of the obligations undertaken in the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Rights of the Child, which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.
  2.The Committee shall consist of eighteen experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field covered by this Convention.1/ The members of the Committee shall be elected by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, as well as to the principal legal systems.
  3.The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties.Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals.
  4.The initial election to the Committee shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Convention and thereafter every second year.At least four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two months.The Secretary-General shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Convention.
  5.The elections shall be held at meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters.At those meetings, for which two thirds of States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.
  6.The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years.They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated.The term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting.
  7.If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause he or she can no longer perform the duties of the Committee, the State Party which nominated the member shall appoint another expert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of the term, subject to the approval of the Committee.
  8.The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.
  9.The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years.
  10.The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined by the Committee.The Committee shall normally meet annually.The duration of the meetings of the Committee shall be determined, and reviewed, if necessary, by a meeting of the States Parties to the present Convention, subject to the approval of the General Assembly.
  11.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention.
  12.With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the Committee established under the present Convention shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide.

第44條(簽約國的報告義務)


  一、簽約國保證在:
  1‧該簽約國公約效力生效之二年內。
  2‧其後每五年,要對實現本公約認定之權利所採取之措施,以及享受這些權利所帶來之一些進步情形,經由聯合國祕書長向委員會提出報告。
  二、根據本公約所作之報告,如有對本公約之履行義務有某種程度影響之原因與障礙時,應載明這些原因和障礙。
  報告內容亦應把簽約國執行本公約之情形予以記載,使委員會有充分之資訊作總括的瞭解。
  三、向委員會提出總括性最初報告之簽約國,在提出一、2每五年報告時,無需重述以前所提出之基本資料。
  四、委員會得要求簽約國就有關本公約之執行情形,提供進一步之資料。
  五、委員會應每二年經由經濟社會理事會,同聯合國會員大會提出有關活動報告。
  六、簽約國應使本國之報告,能夠被國內大眾廣泛利用。

Article 44


  1.States Parties undertake to submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made on the enjoyment of those rights
  (a)Within two years of the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned;
  (b)Thereafter every five years.
  2.Reports made under the present article shall indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the degree of fulfilment of the obligations under the present Convention.Reports shall also contain sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned.
  3.A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph 1(b)of the present article, repeat basic information previously provided.4.The Committee may request from States Parties further information relevant to the implementation of the Convention.
  5.The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council, every two years, reports on its activities.
  6.States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries.

第45條(委員會的作業方法)


  為使本公約有效實施,並鼓勵與本公約相同領域的國際合作,委員會採下列作業方式:
  一、在檢討實施兒童權利公約有關之規定時,聯合國專門機構、聯合國兒童基金會以及其他聯合國組織有權選出代表就其權限範圍內事項參與討論。委員會認為適當且必要時,得以向上述專門機構、聯合國兒童基金會以及其他有資格之團體徵求其權限範圍內關於執行本公約之專門性建議。委員會亦得以要求這些專門機構、聯合國兒童基金會以及其他聯合國組織,軌其活動範圍內有關本公約之執行情形提出報告。
  二、委員會認為適當且必要時,得請求技術性建議與協助。並將需要協助之簽約國報告,和針對這些要求與問題之委員會意見和提案送交專門機構、聯合國兒童基金會與其他有資格團體。
  三、委員會得建議聯合國會員大會,請聯合國祕書長就委員會有關兒童權利之特定事項從事研究。
  四、委員會得以依據本公約第四十四條以及第四十五條所得之資料,提案或作一般性建議。這些提案或一般性建議,應送交各有關簽約國。簽約國如有建議事項,要連同其建議事項一併向聯合國會員大會提出報告。

Article 45


  In order to foster the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international co-operation in the field covered by the Convention:
  (a)The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate.The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies as it may consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates.The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities;
  (b)The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies, any reports from States Parties that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance, along with the Committee's observations and suggestions, if any, on these requests or indications;
  (c)The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to request the Secretary-General to undertake on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to the rights of the child;
  (d)The Committee may make suggestions and general recommendations based on information received pursuant to articles 44 and 45 of the present Convention.Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be transmitted to any State Party concerned and reported to the General Assembly, together with comments, if any, from States Parties.

回索引〉〉

第三章

第46條(署名)


  本公約應公開給各國簽名參加。

Article 46


  The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.

第47條(批准)


  本公約經過批准後始生效。批准文件由聯合國秘書長收存。

Article 47


  The present Convention is subject to ratification.Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

第48條(加入)


  本公約應公開議各國參加。參加時要將申請文件提交聯合國祕書長收存。

Article 48


  The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State.The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

第49條(生效)


  一、本公約於聯合國祕書長收存第二十個國家之批准文件或參加文件後第三十日生效。
  二、在第二十個批准文件或參加文件收存後獲得批准或參加本公約之國家,須於批准文件或參加文件收存後第三十日始生效。

Article 49


  1.The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.
  2.For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

第50條(修正)


  一、簽約國均可提出修正案,或向聯合國祕書長提出修正案。聯合國祕書長應立即將修正案送交各簽約國,針對各簽約國是否對修正案之審議與投票舉行簽約國會議表示意見。 在修正案送達後四個月內,如有三分之一以上簽約國同意開會時,祕書長應在聯合國主辦下召集會議。經由簽約國超過半數之出席通過所採用之修正案,應提交聯合國會員大會同意。
  二、依據本條文1被採用之修正案,應獲得聯合國承認,並獲得三分之二以上多數簽約國接受後始生效。
  三、修正案生效後,接受修正案之簽約國要受其約束。其他簽約國繼續受修正前之公約之約束。

Article 50


  1.Any State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to States Parties, with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals.In the event that, within four months from the date of such communication, at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations.Any amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval.
  2.An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of the present article shall enter into force when it has been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of States Parties.
  3.When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted it, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Convention and any earlier amendments which they have accepted.

第51條(保留)


  一、聯合國祕書長應於簽約國獲批准或參加公約時接受保留條款之文件,並將它通知各簽約國。
  二、與本公約主旨與目標相違背之保留條款不被承認。
  三、保留條款得隨時通知聯合國祕書長撤銷,祕書長應將撤銷之事通知各簽約國。該撤銷通知應於祕書長收到當日起生效。

Article 51


  1.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession.
  2.A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be permitted.
  3.Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States.Such notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received by the Secretary-General

第52條(廢棄)


  簽約國得以書面通知聯合國祕書長宣告退出公約。其退出於祕書長接獲通知之一年後始生效。

Article 52


  A State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.

第53條(保管)


  聯合國祕書長經指派為本公約之保管人。

Article 53


  The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present Convention.

第54條(標準文)


  本公約以阿拉伯文、中文、英文、法文、俄文、西班牙文作成標準文本,保存於聯合國祕書處。

Article 54


  The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.In witness thereof the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed the present Convention.


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