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【名稱】  


《有關難民地位的公約》

(Convention relating to the Status of Refugees)

【發布單位】聯合國大會
【發布日期】一九五一年七月二十八日
  一九五0年十二月十四日第429(Ⅴ)號決議召開的聯合國難民和無國籍人地位全權代表會議於一九五一年七月二十八日通過生效:按照第四十三條的規定,於一九五四年四月二十二日生效。

【章節索引】
第一章 一般規定 §1
第二章 法律上地位 §12
第三章 有利可圖的職業活動 §17
第四章 福利 §20
第五章 行政措施 §25
第六章 執行和過渡規定 §35
第七章 最後條款 §38


【內容】

[序言]

  締約各方,考慮到聯合國憲章和聯合國大會於一九四八年十二月十日通過的世界人權宣言確認人人享有基本權利和自由不受歧視的原則,考慮到聯合國在各種場合表示過它對難民的深切關係,並且竭力保證難民可以最廣泛地行使此項基本權利和自由,考慮到通過一項新的協定來修正和綜合過去關於難民地位的國際協定並擴大此項文件的範圍及其所給予的保護是符合願望的,考慮到庇護權的給予可能使某些國家負荷過分的重擔,並且考慮到聯合國已經認識到這一問題的國際範圍和性質,因此,如果沒有國際合作,就不能對此問題達成滿意的解決,表示希望凡認識到難民問題的社會和人道性質的一切國家,將盡一切努力不使這一問題成為國家之間緊張的原因,注意到聯合國難民事務高級專員對於規定保護難民的國際公約負有監督的任務,並認識到未處理這一問題所採取措施的有效協調,將依賴於各國和高級專員的合作,茲議定如下:


【Preamble】

  The High Contracting Parties,
  Considering that the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights approved on 10 December 1948 by the General Assembly have affirmed the principle that human beings shall enjoy fundamental rights and freedoms without discrimination,
  Considering that the United Nations has, on various occasions, manifested its profound concern for refugees and endeavoured to assure refugees the widest possible exercise of these fundamental rights and freedoms,
  Considering that it is desirable to revise and consolidate previous international agreements relating to the status of refugees and to extend the scope of and the protection accorded by such instruments by means of a new agreement,
  Considering that the grant of asylum may place unduly heavy burdens on certain countries, and that a satisfactory solution of a problem of which the United Nations has recognized the international scope and nature cannot therefore be achieved without international co-operation,
  Expressing the wish that all States, recognizing the social and humanitarian nature of the problem of refugees, will do everything within their power to prevent this problem from becoming a cause of tension between States,
  Noting that the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is charged with the task of supervising international conventions providing for the protection of refugees, and recognizing that the effective co-ordination of measures taken to deal with this problem will depend upon the co-operation of States with the High Commissioner,
  Have agreed as follows :


第一章  一般規定

Chapter I  GENERAL PROVISIONS

第1條 “難民”一詞的定義


  (一)本公約所用”難民”一詞適用於下列任何人:
  (甲)根據一九二六年五月十二日和一九二八年六月三十日的協議、或根據一九三三年十月二十八日和一九三八年二月十日的公約以及一九三九年九月十四日的議定書、或國際難民組織約章被認為難民的人﹔國際難民組織在其執行職務期間所作關於不合格的決定,不妨礙對符合本款(乙)項條件的人給予難民的地位。
  (乙)由於一九五一年一月一日以前發生的事情並因有正當理由畏懼由於種族、宗教、國籍、屬於某一社會團體或具有某種政治見解的原因留在其本國之外,並且由於此項畏懼而不能或不願受該國保護的人﹔或者不具有國籍並由於上述事情留在他以前經常居住國家以外而現在不能或者由於上述畏懼不願返回該國的人。對於不止一國國籍的人,”本國”一詞是指他有國籍的每一個國家。如果沒有實在可以發生畏懼的正當理由而不受他國籍所屬國家之一的保護時,不得認其缺乏本國的保護。
  (二)(甲)本公約第一條(一)款所用” 一九五一年一月一日以前發生的事情”一語應了解為(子)“一九五一年一月一日以前在歐洲發生的事情;或者為(丑)”一九五一年一月一日以前在歐洲或其他地方發生的事情“;締約各國應於簽字、批准、或加入時聲明為了承擔本公約的義務,這一用語應作何解釋。
  (乙)已經採取上述(子)解釋的任何締約國,可以隨時向聯合國秘書長提出通知,採取(丑)解釋以擴大其義務。
  (三)如有下列各項情形,本公約應停止適用於上述(甲)款所列的任何人:
  (甲)該人已自動接受其本國的保護﹔或者
  (乙)該人於喪失國籍後,又自動重新取的國籍﹔或者
  (丙)該人已取得新的國籍,並享受其新國籍國家的保護﹔或者
  (丁)該人已經在過去由於畏受迫害而離去或躲開的國家內自動定居下來﹔或者
  (戊)該人由於被認為是難民所依據的情況不復存在而不能繼續拒絕受其本國保護﹔但本項不適用於本條(一)款(甲)項所列的難民,如果它可以援引由於過去曾受迫害的重大理由以拒絕受其本國的保護﹔
  (己)該人本無國籍,由於被認為是難民所依據的情況不復存在而可以回到其以前經常居住的國家內﹔但本項不適用於本條(一)款(甲)項所列的難民,如果它可以援引由於過去曾受迫害的重大理由以拒絕受其以前經常居住國家的保護。
  (四)本公約不適用於目前從聯合國難民事務高級專員以外的聯合國機關或機構或得保護或援助的人。當上述保護或援助由於任何原因停止而這些人的地位還沒有根據聯合國大會所通過的有關決議明確解決時,他們應在事實上享受本公約的利益。
  (五)本公約不適用於被其居住地國家主管當局認為具有附著於該國國籍權利和義務的人。
  (六)本公約規定不適用於存在著重大理由足以認為有下列情事的任何人:
  (甲)該人犯了國際文件中以作出規定的破壞和平罪、戰爭罪、或危害人類罪﹔
  (乙)該人在以難民身分進入避難國以前,曾在避難國以外犯過嚴重政治罪行﹔
  (丙)該人曾有違反聯合國宗旨和原則的行為並經認為有罪。

Article 1 - Definition of the term "refugee"


  A. For the purposes of the present Convention, the term "refugee" shall apply to any person who:
  (1)Has been considered a refugee under the Arrangements of 12 May 1926 and 30 June 1928 or under the Conventions of 28 October 1933 and 10 February 1938, the Protocol of 14 September 1939 or the Constitution of the International Refugee Organization;
  Decisions of non-eligibility taken by the International Refugee Organization during the period of its activities shall not prevent the status of refugee being accorded to persons who fulfil the conditions of paragraph 2 of this section;
  (2)As a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.
  In the case of a person who has more than one nationality, the term "the country of his nationality" shall mean each of the countries of which he is a national, and a person shall not be deemed to be lacking the protection of the country of his nationality if, without any valid reason based on well-founded fear, he has not availed himself of the protection of one of the countries of which he is a national.
  B. (1)For the purposes of this Convention, the words "events occurring before 1 January 1951" in article 1, section A, shall be understood to mean either (a)"events occurring in Europe before 1 January 1951"; or (b)"events occurring in Europe or elsewhere before 1 January 1951"; and each Contracting State shall make a declaration at the time of signature, ratification or accession, specifying which of these meanings it applies for the purpose of its obligations under this Convention.
  (2)Any Contracting State which has adopted alternative (a)may at any time extend its obligations by adopting alternative (b)by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  C. This Convention shall cease to apply to any person falling under the terms of section A if:
  (1)He has voluntarily re-availed himself of the protection of the country of his nationality; or
  (2)Having lost his nationality, he has voluntarily reacquired it; or
  (3)He has acquired a new nationality, and enjoys the protection of the country of his new nationality; or
  (4)He has voluntarily re-established himself in the country which he left or outside which he remained owing to fear of persecution; or
  (5)He can no longer, because the circumstances in connection with which he has been recognized as a refugee have ceased to exist, continue to refuse to avail himself of the protection of the country of his nationality;
  Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to a refugee falling under section A (1)of this article who is able to invoke compelling reasons arising out of previous persecution for refusing to avail himself of the protection of the country of nationality;
  (6)Being a person who has no nationality he is, because the circumstances in connection with which he has been recognized as a refugee have ceased to exist, able to return to the country of his former habitual residence;
  Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to a refugee falling under section A (1)of this article who is able to invoke compelling reasons arising out of previous persecution for refusing to return to the country of his former habitual residence.
  D. This Convention shall not apply to persons who are at present receiving from organs or agencies of the United Nations other than the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees protection or assistance.
  When such protection or assistance has ceased for any reason, without the position of such persons being definitively settled in accordance with the relevant resolutions adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, these persons shall ipso facto be entitled to the benefits of this Convention.
  E. This Convention shall not apply to a person who is recognized by the competent authorities of the country in which he has taken residence as having the rights and obligations which are attached to the possession of the nationality of that country.
  F. The provisions of this Convention shall not apply to any person with respect to whom there are serious reasons for considering that:
  (a)He has committed a crime against peace, a war crime, or a crime against humanity, as defined in the international instruments drawn up to make provision in respect of such crimes;
  (b)He has committed a serious non-political crime outside the country of refuge prior to his admission to that country as a refugee;
  (c)He has been guilty of acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

第2條 一般義務


  一切難民對其所在國負有責任,此項責任特別要求他們遵守該國的法律和規章以及為維持公共秩序而採取的措施。

Article 2 - General obligations


  Every refugee has duties to the country in which he finds himself, which require in particular that he conform to its laws and regulations as well as to measures taken for the maintenance of public order.

第3條 不受歧視


  締約各國應對難民不分種族、宗教、或國籍,適用本公約的規定。

Article 3 - Non-discrimination


  The Contracting States shall apply the provisions of this Convention to refugees without discrimination as to race, religion or country of origin.

第4條 宗教


  締約各國對在其領土內的難民,關於舉行宗教儀式的自由以及對其子女施加宗教教育的自由方面,應至少給予其本國國民所獲得的待遇。

Article 4 - Religion


  The Contracting States shall accord to refugees within their territories treatment at least as favourable as that accorded to their nationals with respect to freedom to practise their religion and freedom as regards the religious education of their children.

第5條 與本公約無關的權利


  本公約任何規定不得認為妨礙一個締約國並非由於本公約而給予難民的權利和利益。

Article 5 - Rights granted apart from this Convention


  Nothing in this Convention shall be deemed to impair any rights and benefits granted by a Contracting State to refugees apart from this Convention.

第6條 在同樣情況下”一詞的意義


  本公約所用“在同樣情況下”一詞意味著凡是個別的人如果不是難民為了享受有關的權利所必須具備的任何條件(包括關於旅居或居住的期間和條件的要件),但按照要件的性質,難民不可能具備者,則不在此例。

Article 6 - The term "in the same circumstances"


  For the purposes of this Convention, the term "in the same circumstances" implies that any requirements (including requirements as to length and conditions of sojourn or residence)which the particular individual would have to fulfil for the enjoyment of the right in question, if he were not a refugee, must be fulfilled by him, with the exception of requirements which by their nature a refugee is incapable of fulfilling.

第7條 相互條件的免除


  (一)除本公約載有更有利的規定外,締約國應給予難民以一般外國人所獲得的待遇。
  (二)一切難民在居住期滿三年以後,應在締約各國領土內享受立法上相互條件的免除。
  (三)締約各國應繼續給予難民在本公約對該國生效之日他們無須在相互條件下已經有權享受的權利和利益。
  (四)締約各國對無須在相互條件下給予難民根據(二)、(三)兩款他們有權享受以外的權利和利益,以及對不具備(二)、(三)兩款所規定條件的難民亦免除相互條件的可能性,應給予有利的考慮。
  (五)第(二)、(三)兩款的規定對本公約第十三十八十九二十一二十二條所指權利和利益,以及本公約並未規定的權利和利益,均予適用。

Article 7 - Exemption from reciprocity


  1. Except where this Convention contains more favourable provisions, a Contracting State shall accord to refugees the same treatment as is accorded to aliens generally.
  2. After a period of three years' residence, all refugees shall enjoy exemption from legislative reciprocity in the territory of the Contracting States.
  3. Each Contracting State shall continue to accord to refugees the rights and benefits to which they were already entitled, in the absence of reciprocity, at the date of entry into force of this Convention for that State. 4. The Contracting States shall consider favourably the possibility of according to refugees, in the absence of reciprocity, rights and benefits beyond those to which they are entitled according to paragraphs 2 and 3, and to extending exemption from reciprocity to refugees who do not fulfil the conditions provided for in paragraphs 2 and 3.
  5. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 apply both to the rights and benefits referred to in articles 13, 18, 19, 21 and 22 of this Convention and to rights and benefits for which this Convention does not provide.

第8條 特殊措施的免除


  關於對一外國國民的人身、財產或利益所得採取的特殊措施,締約各國不得對形式上為該外國國民的難民往往因其所屬國籍而對其適用此項措施。締約各國如根據其國內法不能適用本條所表示的一般原則,應在適當情況下,對此項難民給予免除的優惠。

Article 8 - Exemption from exceptional measures


  With regard to exceptional measures which may be taken against the person, property or interests of nationals of a foreign State, the Contracting States shall not apply such measures to a refugee who is formally a national of the said State solely on account of such nationality. Contracting States which, under their legislation, are prevented from applying the general principle expressed in this article, shall, in appropriate cases, grant exemptions in favour of such refugees.

第9條 臨時措施


  本公約的任何規定並不妨礙一締約國在戰時或其他嚴重和特殊情況下對個別的人在該締約國斷定該人確為難民以前,並且認為有必要為了國家安全的利益應對該人繼續採取措施時,對他臨時採取他國所認為對其國家安全是迫切需要的措施。

Article 9 - Provisional measures


  Nothing in this Convention shall prevent a Contracting State, in time of war or other grave and exceptional circumstances, from taking provisionally measures which it considers to be essential to the national security in the case of a particular person, pending a determination by the Contracting State that that person is in fact a refugee and that the continuance of such measures is necessary in his case in the interests of national security.

第10條 繼續居住


  (一)難民如在第二次世界大戰時被強制放逐並移至締約一國的領土並在其內居住,這種強制居留的時期應被認為在該領土內合法居住期間以內。
  (二)難民如在第二次世界大戰時被強制逐出締約一國的領土,而在本公約生效之日以前返回該國準備定居,則在強制放逐以前和以後的居住時期,為了符合於繼續居住這一要求的任何目的,應被認為是一個未經中斷的期間。

Article 10 - Continuity of residence


  1. Where a refugee has been forcibly displaced during the Second World War and removed to the territory of a Contracting State, and is resident there, the period of such enforced sojourn shall be considered to have been lawful residence within that territory.
  2. Where a refugee has been forcibly displaced during the Second World War from the territory of a Contracting State and has, prior to the date of entry into force of this Convention, returned there for the purpose of taking up residence, the period of residence before and after such enforced displacement shall be regarded as one uninterrupted period for any purposes for which uninterrupted residence is required.

第11條 避難海員


  對於在懸掛締約一國國旗的船上正常服務的難民,該國對於他們在其領土內定居以及發給他們旅行證件或者暫時接納他們到該國領土內,特別是為了便利他們在另一國家定居的目的,均應給予同情的考慮。

Article 11 - Refugee seamen


  In the case of refugees regularly serving as crew members on board a ship flying the flag of a Contracting State, that State shall give sympathetic consideration to their establishment on its territory and the issue of travel documents to them or their temporary admission to its territory particularly with a view to facilitating their establishment in another country.

回索引〉〉

第二章  法律上地位

第12條 個人身分


  (一)難民的個人身分,應受其住所地國家的法律支配,如無住所,則受其居住地國家的法律支配。
  (二)難民以前由於個人身分而取得的權利,特別是關於婚姻的權利,應受到締約一國的尊重,如必要時應手該國法律所要求的儀式,但以如果他不是難民該有關的權利亦被該國承認者為限。

Article 12 - Personal status


  1. The personal status of a refugee shall be governed by the law of the country of his domicile or, if he has no domicile, by the law of the country of his residence.
  2. Rights previously acquired by a refugee and dependent on personal status, more particularly rights attaching to marriage, shall be respected by a Contracting State, subject to compliance, if this be necessary, with the formalities required by the law of that State, provided that the right in question is one which would have been recognized by the law of that State had he not become a refugee.

第13條 動產和不動產


  締約各國在動產和不動產的取得及與此有關的其他權利,以及關於動產和不動產租賃和其他契約方面,應給予難民盡可能優惠的待遇,無論如何,此項待遇不得低於在同樣情況下給予一般外國人的待遇。

Article 13 - Movable and immovable property


  The Contracting States shall accord to a refugee treatment as favourable as possible and, in any event, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens generally in the same circumstances, as regards the acquisition of movable and immovable property and other rights pertaining thereto, and to leases and other contracts relating to movable and immovable property.

第14條 藝術權利和工業財產


  關於工業財產的保護,例如對發明、設計或模型、商標、商號名稱、以及對文學、藝術、和科學作品的權利,難民在其經常居住的國家內,應給以該國國民所享有的同樣保護。他在任何其他締約國領土內,應給以他經常居住國家的國民所享有的同樣保護。

Article 14 - Artistic rights and industrial property


  In respect of the protection of industrial property, such as inventions, designs or models, trade marks, trade names, and of rights in literary, artistic and scientific works, a refugee shall be accorded in the country in which he has his habitual residence the same protection as is accorded to nationals of that country. In the territory of any other Contracting States, he shall be accorded the same protection as is accorded in that territory to nationals of the country in which he has his habitual residence.

第15條 結社的權利


  關於非政治性和非營利性的社團以及同業公會組織,締約各國對合法居留在其領土內的難民,應給以一個外國的國民在同樣情況下所享有的最惠國待遇。

Article 15 - Right of association


  As regards non-political and non-profit-making associations and trade unions the Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully staying in their territory the most favourable treatment accorded to nationals of a foreign country, in the same circumstances.

第16條 向法院申訴的權利


  (一)難民有權自由向所有締約各國領土內的法院申訴。
  (二)難民在其經常居住的締約國內,就向法院申訴的事項包括訴訟救助和免於提供訴訟擔保在內,應享有與本國國民相同的待遇。
  (三)難民在其經常居住的國家以外的其他國家內,就第(二)款所述事項,應給以他經常居住國家的國所享有待遇。

Article 16 - Access to courts


  1. A refugee shall have free access to the courts of law on the territory of all Contracting States.
  2. A refugee shall enjoy in the Contracting State in which he has his habitual residence the same treatment as a national in matters pertaining to access to the courts, including legal assistance and exemption from cautio judicatum solvi .
  3. A refugee shall be accorded in the matters referred to in paragraph 2 in countries other than that in which he has his habitual residence the treatment granted to a national of the country of his habitual residence.

回索引〉〉

第三章  有利可圖的職業活動

第17條 以工資受償的僱用


  (一)締約各國對合法在其領土內居留的難民,就從事工作以換取工資的權利方面,應給以在同樣情況下一個外國國民所享有的最惠國待遇。
  (二)無倫如何,對外國人施加的限制措施或者為了保護國內勞動力市場而對僱用外國人施加限制的措施,均不得適用於在本公約對有關締約國生效之日已免除此項措施之難民,亦不適用於具備下列條件之一的難民:
  (甲)已在該國居住滿三年﹔
  (乙)其配偶具有居住國的國籍,但如難民已與其配偶離異,則不得援引本項規定的利益﹔
  (丙)其子女一人或數人具有居住國的國籍。
  (三)關於以工資受償的僱佣問題,締約各國對於使一切難民的權利相同於本國國民的權利方面,應給予同情的考慮,特別是根據招工計劃或移民入境辦法進入其領土的難民的此項權利。

Article 17 - Wage-earning employment


  1. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully staying in their territory the most favourable treatment accorded to nationals of a foreign country in the same circumstances, as regards the right to engage in wage-earning employment.
  2. In any case, restrictive measures imposed on aliens or the employment of aliens for the protection of the national labour market shall not be applied to a refugee who was already exempt from them at the date of entry into force of this Convention for the Contracting State concerned, or who fulfils one of the following conditions:
  (a)He has completed three years' residence in the country;
  (b)He has a spouse possessing the nationality of the country of residence. A refugee may not invoke the benefit of this provision if he has abandoned his spouse;
  (c)He has one or more children possessing the nationality of the country of residence.
  3. The Contracting States shall give sympathetic consideration to assimilating the rights of all refugees with regard to wage-earning employment to those of nationals, and in particular of those refugees who have entered their territory pursuant to programmes of labour recruitment or under immigration schemes.

第18條 自營職業


  締約各國對合法在其領土內的難民,就其自己經營業、工業、手工業、商業以及設立工商業公司方面,應給以盡可能優惠的待遇,無論如何,此項待遇不得低於一般外國人在同樣情況下所享有的待遇。

Article 18 - Self-employment


  The Contracting States shall accord to a refugee lawfully in their territory treatment as favourable as possible and, in any event, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens generally in the same circumstances, as regards the right to engage on his own account in agriculture, industry, handicrafts and commerce and to establish commercial and industrial companies.

第19條 自由職業


  (一)締約各國對合法居留於其領土內的難民,凡持有該國主管當局所承認的文憑並願意從事自由職業者,應給以盡可能優惠的待遇,無論如何,此項待遇不得低於在同樣情況下所享有的待遇。
  (二)締約各國對其本土以外而由其負責國際關係的領土內的難民,應在符合其法律和憲法的情況下,盡極大努力使這些難民定居下來。

Article 19 - Liberal professions


  1. Each Contracting State shall accord to refugees lawfully staying in their territory who hold diplomas recognized by the competent authorities of that State, and who are desirous of practising a liberal profession, treatment as favourable as possible and, in any event, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens generally in the same circumstances.
  2. The Contracting States shall use their best endeavours consistently with their laws and constitutions to secure the settlement of such refugees in the territories, other than the metropolitan territory, for whose international relations they are responsible.

回索引〉〉

第四章  福利

Chapter IV  WELFARE

第20條 定額供應


  如果存在著定額供應制度,而這一制度是適用於一般居民並調整著缺銷產品的總分配,難民應給以本國國民所享有的同樣待遇。

Article 20 - Rationing


  Where a rationing system exists, which applies to the population at large and regulates the general distribution of products in short supply, refugees shall be accorded the same treatment as nationals.

第21條 房屋


  締約各國對合法居留於其領土內的難民,就房屋問題方面,如果該問題是由法律或規章調整或者受公共當局管制,應給以盡可能優惠的待遇,無論如何,此項待遇不得低於一般外國人在同樣情況下所享有的待遇。

Article 21 - Housing


  As regards housing, the Contracting States, in so far as the matter is regulated by laws or regulations or is subject to the control of public authorities, shall accord to refugees lawfully staying in their territory treatment as favourable as possible and, in any event, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens generally in the same circumstances.

第22條 公共教育


  (一)締約各國應給予難民凡本國國民在初等教育方面所享有的同樣待遇。
  (二)締約各國就初等教育以外的教育,特別是就獲得研究學術的機會,承認外國學校的證書、文憑、和學位、減免學費、以及發給獎學金方面,應對難民給予盡可能優惠的待遇,無論如何,此項待遇不得低於一般外國人在同樣情況下所享有的待遇。

Article 22 - Public education


  1. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees the same treatment as is accorded to nationals with respect to elementary education.
  2. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees treatment as favourable as possible, and, in any event, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens generally in the same circumstances, with respect to education other than elementary education and, in particular, as regards access to studies, the recognition of foreign school certificates, diplomas and degrees, the remission of fees and charges and the award of scholarships.

第23條 公共救濟


  締約各國對合法居住在其領土內的難民,就公共救濟和援助方面,應給以凡其本國國民所享有的同樣待遇。

Article 23 - Public relief


  The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully staying in their territory the same treatment with respect to public relief and assistance as is accorded to their nationals.

第24條 勞動立法和社會安全


  (一)締約各國對合法居留在其領土內的難民,就下列各事項,應給以本國國民所享有的同樣待遇:
  (甲)報酬,包括家庭津貼──如這種津貼構成報酬一部份的話、工作時間、加班辦法、假日工資、對帶回家去工作的限制、僱用最低年齡、學徒和訓練、女工和童工、享受共同交涉的利益,如果這些事項由法律或規章規定,或者受行政當局管制的話﹔
  (乙)社會安全(關於僱用中所受損害、職業病、生育、疾病、殘廢、年老、死亡、失業、家庭負擔或根據國家法律或規章包括在社會安全計劃之內的任何其他事故的法律規定),但受以下規定的限制:
  (子)對維持既得權利和正在取得的權利可能做出適當安排﹔
  (丑)居住帝國的法律或規章可能對全部由公共基金支付利益金或利益金的一部或對不符合於為發給正常退職金所規定資助條件的人發給津貼,制定特別安排。
  (二)難民由於僱用中所受損害或職業病死亡而獲得的補償權利,不因受益人居住在締約國領土以外而受影響。
  (三)締約各國之間所締結或在將來可能締結的協定,凡涉及社會安全既得權利或正在取得的權利,締約各國應以此項協定所產生的利益給予難民,但以符合於對有關協定個簽字國國民適用的條件者為限。
  (四)締約各國對以締約國和非締約國之間隨時可能生效的類似協定所產生的利益盡量給予難民一事,將予以同情的考慮。

Article 24 - Labour legislation and social security


  1. The Contracting States shall accord to refugees lawfully staying in their territory the same treatment as is accorded to nationals in respect of the following matters;
  (a)In so far as such matters are governed by laws or regulations or are subject to the control of administrative authorities: remuneration, including family allowances where these form part of remuneration, hours of work, overtime arrangements, holidays with pay, restrictions on work, minimum age of employment, apprenticeship and training, women's work and the work of young persons, and the enjoyment of the benefits of collective bargaining;
  (b)Social security (legal provisions in respect of employment injury, occupational diseases, maternity, sickness, disability, old age, death, unemployment, family responsibilities and any other contingency which, according to national laws or regulations, is covered by a social security scheme), subject to the following limitations:
  (i)There may be appropriate arrangements for the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition;
  (ii)National laws or regulations of the country of residence may prescribe special arrangements concerning benefits or portions of benefits which are payable wholly out of public funds, and concerning allowances paid to persons who do not fulfil the contribution conditions prescribed for the award of a normal pension.
  2. The right to compensation for the death of a refugee resulting from employment injury or from occupational disease shall not be affected by the fact that the residence of the beneficiary is outside the territory of the Contracting State.
  3. The Contracting States shall extend to refugees the benefits of agreements concluded between them, or which may be concluded between them in the future, concerning the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in the process of acquisition in regard to social security, subject only to the conditions which apply to nationals of the States signatory to the agreements in question. 4. The Contracting States will give sympathetic consideration to extending to refugees so far as possible the benefits of similar agreements which may at any time be in force between such Contracting States and non-contracting States.

回索引〉〉

第五章  行政措施

Chapter V  ADMINISTRATIVE MEASURES

第25條 行政協助


  (一)如果難民行使一項權利時正常的需要一個對他不能援助的外國當局的協助,則難民的居住地的締約國應安排由該國自已當局或由一個國際當局給予此項協助。
  (二)第一款所述當局應將正常地應由難民的本國當局或通過其本國當局給予外國人的文件或證明書給予難民,或者使這種文件或證明書在其監督下給予難民。
  (三)如此發給的文件或證明書應代替由難民的本國當局或通過其本國當局發給難民的正式文件,並應在沒有相反證據的情況下給予證明的效力。
  (四)除對貧苦的人可能給予特殊的待遇外,對上述服務可以徵收費用,但此項費用應有限度,並應相當於為類似服務向本國國民徵收的費用。
  (五)本條各項規定對第二十七條和第二十八條並不妨礙。

Article 25 - Administrative assistance


  1. When the exercise of a right by a refugee would normally require the assistance of authorities of a foreign country to whom he cannot have recourse, the Contracting States in whose territory he is residing shall arrange that such assistance be afforded to him by their own authorities or by an international authority.
  2. The authority or authorities mentioned in paragraph 1 shall deliver or cause to be delivered under their supervision to refugees such documents or certifications as would normally be delivered to aliens by or through their national authorities.
  3. Documents or certifications so delivered shall stand in the stead of the official instruments delivered to aliens by or through their national authorities, and shall be given credence in the absence of proof to the contrary.
  4. Subject to such exceptional treatment as may be granted to indigent persons, fees may be charged for the services mentioned herein, but such fees shall be moderate and commensurate with those charged to nationals for similar services.
  5. The provisions of this article shall be without prejudice to articles 27 and 28.

第26條 行動自由


  締約各國對合法在其領土內的難民,應給予選擇其居住地和在其領土內自由行動的權利,但應受對一般外國人在同樣情況下適用的規章的限制。

Article 26 - Freedom of movement


  Each Contracting State shall accord to refugees lawfully in its territory the right to choose their place of residence and to move freely within its territory subject to any regulations applicable to aliens generally in the same circumstances.

第27條 身份證件


  締約各國對在其領土內部持有有效旅行證件的任何難民,應發給身分證件。

Article 27 - Identity papers


  The Contracting States shall issue identity papers to any refugee in their territory who does not possess a valid travel document.

第28條 旅行證件


  (一)締約各國對合法在其領土內居留的難民,除因國家安全或公共秩序的重大原因應另作考慮外,應發給旅行證件,以憑在其領土以外旅行。本公約附件的規定應適用於上述證件。締約各國可以發給在其領土內的任何其他難民上述旅行證件。締約各國特別對於在其領土內而不能向其合法居住地國家取得旅行證件的難民發給上述旅行證件一事,應給予同情的考慮。
  (二)根據以前國際協定由此項協定締約各方發給難民的旅行證件,締約各方應予承認,並應當作根據本條發給的旅行證件同樣看待。

Article 28 - Travel documents


  1. The Contracting States shall issue to refugees lawfully staying in their territory travel documents for the purpose of travel outside their territory, unless compelling reasons of national security or public order otherwise require, and the provisions of the Schedule to this Convention shall apply with respect to such documents. The Contracting States may issue such a travel document to any other refugee in their territory; they shall in particular give sympathetic consideration to the issue of such a travel document to refugees in their territory who are unable to obtain a travel document from the country of their lawful residence.
  2. Travel documents issued to refugees under previous international agreements by Parties thereto shall be recognized and treated by the Contracting States in the same way as if they had been issued pursuant to this article.

第29條 財政徵收


  (一)締約各國不得對難民徵收其向本國國民在類似情況下徵收以外的或較高於向其本國國民在類似情況下徵收的任何種類捐稅或費用。
  (二)前款規定並不妨礙對難民適用關於向外國人發給行政文件包括旅行證件在內徵收費用的法律和規章。

Article 29 - Fiscal charges


  1. The Contracting States shall not impose upon refugees duties, charges or taxes, of any description whatsoever, other or higher than those which are or may be levied on their nationals in similar situations.
  2. Nothing in the above paragraph shall prevent the application to refugees of the laws and regulations concerning charges in respect of the issue to aliens of administrative documents including identity papers.

第30條 資產的移轉


  (一)締約國應在符合於其法律和規章的情況下,准許難民將其攜入該國領土內的資產,移轉到難民為重新定居目的而已被准許入境的另一國家。
  (二)如果難民聲請移轉,不論在何地方的並在另一國家重新定居所需要的財產,而且該另一國家已准其入境,則締約國對其聲請應給予同情的考慮。

Article 30 - Transfer of assets


  1. A Contracting State shall, in conformity with its laws and regulations, permit refugees to transfer assets which they have brought into its territory, to another country where they have been admitted for the purposes of resettlement.
  2. A Contracting State shall give sympathetic consideration to the application of refugees for permission to transfer assets wherever they may be and which are necessary for their resettlement in another country to which they have been admitted.

第31條 非法留在避難國的難民


  (一)締約各國對於直接來自生命或自由受到第一條所指威嚇的領土未經許可而進入或逗留於該國領土的難民,不得因該難民的非法入境或逗留而加以刑罰,但以該難民不遲延地自行投向當局說明其非法入境或逗留的正當原因者為限。
  (二)締約各國對上述難民的行動,不得加以除必要以外的限制,此項限制只能於難民在該國的地位正常化或難民獲得另一國入境准許以前適用。締約各國應給予上述難民一個合理期間以及一切必要的便利,以便獲得另一國入境的許可。

Article 31 - Refugees unlawfully in the country of refuge


  1. The Contracting States shall not impose penalties, on account of their illegal entry or presence, on refugees who, coming directly from a territory where their life or freedom was threatened in the sense of article 1, enter or are present in their territory without authorization, provided they present themselves without delay to the authorities and show good cause for their illegal entry or presence.
  2. The Contracting States shall not apply to the movements of such refugees restrictions other than those which are necessary and such restrictions shall only be applied until their status in the country is regularized or they obtain admission into another country. The Contracting States shall allow such refugees a reasonable period and all the necessary facilities to obtain admission into another country.

第32條 驅逐出境


  締約各國除因國家安全或公共秩序理由外,不得將合法在其領土內的難民驅逐出境。
  驅逐難民出境只能以按照合法程序作出的判決為根據。除因國家安全的重大理由要求另作考慮外,應准許難民提出有利於自己的證據,向主管當局或向主管當局特別指定的人員申訴或者為此目的委託代表向上述當局或人員申訴。
  締約各國應給予上述難民一個合理的期間,以便取得合法進入另一個國家的許可。締約各國保留在這期間內適用他們所認為必要的內部措施的權利。

Article 32 - Expulsion


  1. The Contracting States shall not expel a refugee lawfully in their territory save on grounds of national security or public order.
  2. The expulsion of such a refugee shall be only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with due process of law. Except where compelling reasons of national security otherwise require, the refugee shall be allowed to submit evidence to clear himself, and to appeal to and be represented for the purpose before competent authority or a person or persons specially designated by the competent authority.
  3. The Contracting States shall allow such a refugee a reasonable period within which to seek legal admission into another country. The Contracting States reserve the right to apply during that period such internal measures as they may deem necessary.

第33條 禁止驅逐出境或送回(“推回”)


  任何締約國不得以任何方式將難民驅逐或送回(“推回”)至其生命或自由因為他的種族、宗教、國籍、參加某一社會團體或具有某種政治見解而受威嚇的領土邊界。
  但如有正當理由認為難民足以危害所在國的安全,或者難民已被確定判決認為犯過特別嚴重罪行從而構成對該國社會的危險,則該難民不得要求本條規定的利益。

Article 33 - Prohibition of expulsion or return ("refoulement")


  1. No Contracting State shall expel or return (" refouler ")a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.
  2. The benefit of the present provision may not, however, be claimed by a refugee whom there are reasonable grounds for regarding as a danger to the security of the country in which he is, or who, having been convicted by a final judgement of a particularly serious crime, constitutes a danger to the community of that country.

第34條 入籍


  締約各國應盡可能便利難民的入籍和同化。他們應特別盡力加速辦理入籍程序,並儘可能減低此項程序的費用。

Article 34 - Naturalization


  The Contracting States shall as far as possible facilitate the assimilation and naturalization of refugees. They shall in particular make every effort to expedite naturalization proceedings and to reduce as far as possible the charges and costs of such proceedings.

回索引〉〉

第六章  執行和過渡規定

Chapter VI  EXECUTORY AND TRANSITORY PROVISIONS

第35條 國家當局同聯合國的合作


  (一)締約各國保證同聯合國難民事務高級專員辦事處或繼承該辦事處的聯合國任何其他機關在其執行職務時進行合作,並應特別使其在監督適用本公約規定而行使職務時獲得便利。
  (二)為了使高級專員辦事處或繼承該辦事處的聯合國其他機關向聯合國主管機關作出報告,締約各國保證於此項機關請求時,向他們在適當形式下提供關於下列事項的情報和統計資料:
  (甲)難民的情況,
  (乙)本公約的執行,以及
  (丙)現行有效或日後可能生效的涉及難民的法律、規章和法令。

Article 35 - Co-operation of the national authorities with the United Nations


  1. The Contracting States undertake to co-operate with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, or any other agency of the United Nations which may succeed it, in the exercise of its functions, and shall in particular facilitate its duty of supervising the application of the provisions of this Convention.
  2. In order to enable the Office of the High Commissioner or any other agency of the United Nations which may succeed it, to make reports to the competent organs of the United Nations, the Contracting States undertake to provide them in the appropriate form with information and statistical data requested concerning:
  (a)The condition of refugees,
  (b)The implementation of this Convention, and
  (c)Laws, regulations and decrees which are, or may hereafter be, in force relating to refugees.

第36條 關於國內立法的情報


  締約各國應向聯合國秘書長送交他們可能採用為保證執行本公約的法律和規章。

Article 36 - Information on national legislation


  The Contracting States shall communicate to the Secretary-General of the United Nations the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application of this Convention.

第37條 對以前公約的關係


  在不妨礙本公約第二十八條第二款的情況下,本公約在國之間代替一九二二年七月五日、一九二四年五月三十一日、一九二六年五月十二日、一九二八年六月三十日以及一九三五年七月三十日的協議,一九三三年十月二十八日和一九三八年二月十日的公約,一九三九年九月十四日議定書和一九四六年十月十五日的協定。

Article 37 - Relation to previous conventions


  Without prejudice to article 28, paragraph 2, of this Convention, this Convention replaces, as between Parties to it, the Arrangements of 5 July 1922, 31 May 1924, 12 May 1926, 30 June 1928 and 30 July 1935, the Conventions of 28 October 1933 and 10 February 1938, the Protocol of 14 September 1939 and the Agreement of 15 October 1946.

回索引〉〉

第七章  最後條款

Chapter VII  FINAL CLAUSES

第38條 爭端的解決


  本公約締約國間關於公約解釋或執行的爭端,如不能以其他的方法解決,應依爭端任何一方當事國的請求,提交國際法院。

Article 38 - Settlement of disputes


  Any dispute between Parties to this Convention relating to its interpretation or application, which cannot be settled by other means, shall be referred to the International Court of Justice at the request of any one of the parties to the dispute.

第39條 簽字、批准和加入


  (一)本公約應於一九五一年七月二十八日在日內瓦開放簽字,此後交存聯合國秘書長。本公約將自一九五一年七月二十八日至八月三十一日止在聯合國駐歐辦事處開放簽字,並將自一九五一年九月十七日至一九五二年十二月三十一日止在聯合國總部重行開放簽字。
  (二)本公約將對聯合國所有會員國,並對應邀出席難民和無國籍人地位全權代表會議或由聯合國大會致送簽字邀請的任何其他國家開放簽字。本公約應經批准,批准書應交存聯合國秘書長。
  (三)本公約將自一九五一年七月二十八日起對本條(二)款所指國家開放任憑加入。加入經向聯合國秘書長交存加入書後生效。

Article 39 - Signature, ratification and accession


  1. This Convention shall be opened for signature at Geneva on 28 July 1951 and shall thereafter be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. It shall be open for signature at the European Office of the United Nations from 28 July to 31 August 1951 and shall be re-opened for signature at the Headquarters of the United Nations from 17 September 1951 to 31 December 1952.
  2. This Convention shall be open for signature on behalf of all States Members of the United Nations, and also on behalf of any other State invited to attend the Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons or to which an invitation to sign will have been addressed by the General Assembly. It shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  3. This Convention shall be open from 28 July 1951 for accession by the States referred to in paragraph 2 of this article. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

第40條 領土適用條款


  (一)任何一國得於簽字、批准、或加入時聲明本公約將適用於由其負責國際關係的一切或任何領土。此項聲明將於公約對該有關國家生效時發生效力。
  (二)此後任何時候,這種適用於領土的任何聲明應用通知書送達聯合國秘書長,並將從聯合國秘書長收到此項通知書之日後第九十天起或者從公約對該國生效之日起發生效力,以發生在後之日期為準。
  (三)關於在簽字、批准、或加入時本公約不適用的領土,各有關國家應考慮採取必要步驟的可能,以便將本公約擴大適用到此項領土,但以此項領土的政府因憲法上需要以同意者為限。

Article 40 - Territorial application clause


  1. Any State may, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, declare that this Convention shall extend to all or any of the territories for the international relations of which it is responsible. Such a declaration shall take effect when the Convention enters into force for the State concerned.
  2. At any time thereafter any such extension shall be made by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and shall take effect as from the ninetieth day after the day of receipt by the Secretary-General of the United Nations of this notification, or as from the date of entry into force of the Convention for the State concerned, whichever is the later.
  3. With respect to those territories to which this Convention is not extended at the time of signature, ratification or accession, each State concerned shall consider the possibility of taking the necessary steps in order to extend the application of this Convention to such territories, subject, where necessary for constitutional reasons, to the consent of the Governments of such territories.

第41條 聯邦條款


  關於聯邦或單一政體的國家,應適用下述規定:
  (一)就本公約中屬於聯邦立法當局的立法管轄範圍內的條款而言,聯邦政府的義務應在此限度內與非聯邦國家的締約國相同﹔
  (二)關於本公約中屬於邦、省、或縣的立法管轄範圍內的條款,如根據聯邦內憲法制度,此項邦、省、或縣不一定要採取立法行動的話,聯邦政府應儘早將此項條款附具贊同的建議,提請此項邦、省、或縣的主管當局注意﹔
  (三)作為本公約締約國的聯邦國家,如經聯合國秘書長轉送任何其他締約國的請求時,應就聯邦及其構成各單位有關本公約任何個別規定的法律和實踐,提供一項聲明,說明此項規定已經立法或其他行動予以實現的程度。

Article 41 - Federal clause


  In the case of a Federal or non-unitary State, the following provisions shall apply:
  (a)With respect to those articles of this Convention that come within the legislative jurisdiction of the federal legislative authority, the obligations of the Federal Government shall to this extent be the same as those of parties which are not Federal States;
  (b)With respect to those articles of this Convention that come within the legislative jurisdiction of constituent States, provinces or cantons which are not, under the constitutional system of the Federation, bound to take legislative action, the Federal Government shall bring such articles with a favourable recommendation to the notice of the appropriate authorities of States, provinces or cantons at the earliest possible moment;
  (c)A Federal State Party to this Convention shall, at the request of any other Contracting State transmitted through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, supply a statement of the law and practice of the Federation and its constituent units in regard to any particular provision of the Convention showing the extent to which effect has been given to that provision by legislative or other action.

第42條 保留


  (一)任何國家在簽字、批准、或加入時,可以對公約第十六(一)以及三十六至四十六(包括首尾兩條在內)各條以外的條款作出保留。
  (二)依本條第(一)款作出保留的任何國家可以隨時通知聯合國秘書長撤回保留。

Article 42 - Reservations


  1. At the time of signature, ratification or accession, any State may make reservations to articles of the Convention other than to articles 1, 3, 4, 16 (1), 33, 36-46 inclusive.
  2. Any State making a reservation in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article may at any time withdraw the reservation by a communication to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

第43條 生效


  (一)本公約於第六件批准書或加入書交存之日後第九十天生效。
  (二)對於在第六件批准書或加入書交存後批准或加入本公約之各國,本公約將於該國交存其批准書或加入書之日後第九十天生效。

Article 43 - Entry into force


  1. This Convention shall come into force on the ninetieth day following the day of deposit of the sixth instrument of ratification or accession.
  2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the sixth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

第44條 退出


  (一)任何締約國可以隨時通知聯合國秘書長退出本公約。
  (二)上述退出將於聯合國秘書長收到退出通知之日起一年後對該有關締約國生效。
  (三)依第四十條作出聲明或通知的任何國家可以在此以後隨時通知聯合國秘書長,聲明公約於秘書長收到通知之日後一年停止擴大適用於此領土。

Article 44 - Denunciation


  1. Any Contracting State may denounce this Convention at any time by a notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  2. Such denunciation shall take effect for the Contracting State concerned one year from the date upon which it is received by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  3. Any State which has made a declaration or notification under article 40 may, at any time thereafter, by a notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, declare that the Convention shall cease to extend to such territory one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.

第45條 修改


  (一)任何締約國可以隨時通知聯合國秘書長,請求修改本公約。
  (二)聯合國大會應建議對於上述請求所應採取的步驟,如果有這種步驟的話。

Article 45 - Revision


  1. Any Contracting State may request revision of this Convention at any time by a notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  2. The General Assembly of the United Nations shall recommend the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such request.

第46條 聯合國秘書長的通知


  聯合國秘書長應將下列事項通知聯合國所有會員國以及第三十九條所述非會員國:
  (一)根據第一條(二)所作聲明和通知﹔
  (二)根據第三十九條簽字、批准、和加入﹔
  (三)根據第四十條所作聲明和通知﹔
  (四)根據第四十二條聲明保留和撤回﹔
  (五)根據第四十三條本公約生效的日期﹔
  (六)根據第四十四條聲明退出和通知﹔
  (七)根據第四十五條請求修改。
  下列簽署人經正式授權各自代表本國政府在本公約簽字,以昭信守。
  一九五一年七月二十八日訂於日內瓦,計一份,其英文本和法文本具有同等效力,應交存於聯合國檔案庫,其經證明為真實無誤的副本應交給聯合國所有會員國以及第三十九條所述非會員國。

Article 46 - Notifications by the Secretary-General of the United Nations


  The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all Members of the United Nations and non-member States referred to in article 39:
  (a)Of declarations and notifications in accordance with section B of article 1;
  (b)Of signatures, ratifications and accessions in accordance with article 39;
  (c)Of declarations and notifications in accordance with article 40;
  (d)Of reservations and withdrawals in accordance with article 42;
  (e)Of the date on which this Convention will come into force in accordance with article 43;
  (f)Of denunciations and notifications in accordance with article 44;
  (g)Of requests for revision in accordance with article 45.
  In faith whereof the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Convention on behalf of their respective Governments.
  Done at Geneva, this twenty-eighth day of July, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-one, in a single copy, of which the English and French texts are equally authentic and which shall remain deposited in the archives of the United Nations, and certified true copies of which shall be delivered to all Members of the United Nations and to the non-member States referred to in article 39.


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