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【名稱】


《聯合國打擊跨國組織犯罪公約》

United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime


【沿革】 2000年11月15日通過

【內容】

第1條 宗旨


  本公約的宗旨是促進合作,以便更有效地預防和打擊跨國有組織犯罪。

Article 1 Statement of purpose


  The purpose of this Convention is to promote cooperation to prevent and combat transnational organized crime more effectively.

第2條 術語的使用


  在本公約中:
  (a)“有組織犯罪集團”係指由三人或多人所組成的、在一定時期內存在的、為了實施一項或多項嚴重犯罪或根據本公約確立的犯罪以直接或間接獲得金錢或其他物質利益而一致行動的有組織結構的集團;
  (b)“嚴重犯罪”係指構成可受到最高刑至少四年的剝奪自由或更嚴厲處罰的犯罪的行為;
  (c)“有組織結構的集團”係指並非為了立即實施一項犯罪而隨意組成的集團,但不必要求確定成員職責,也不必要求成員的連續性或完善的組織結構;
  (d)“財產”係指各種資產,不論其為物質的或非物質的、動產或不動產、有形的或無形的,以及證明對這些資產所有權或權益的法律文件或文書;
  (e)“犯罪所得”係指直接或間接地通過犯罪而產生或獲得的任何財產;
  (f)“凍結”或“扣押”係指根據法院或其他主管當局的命令暫時禁止財產轉移、轉換、處置或移動或對之實行暫時性扣留或控制;
  (g)“沒收”,在適用情況下還包括“充公”,係指根據法院或其他主管當局的命令對財產實行永久剝奪;
  (h)“上游犯罪”係指由其產生的所得可能成為本公約第6條所定義的犯罪的對象的任何犯罪;
  (i)“控制下交付”係指在主管當局知情並由其進行監測的情況下允許非法或可疑貨物運出、通過或運入一國或多國領土的一種做法,其目的在於偵查某項犯罪並辨認參與該項犯罪的人員;
  (j)“區域經濟一體化組織”係指由某一區域的一些主權國家組成的組織,其成員國已將處理本公約範圍內事務的權限轉交該組織,而且該組織已按照其內部程序獲得簽署、批准、接受、核准或加入本公約的正式授權;本公約所述“締約國”應在這類組織的權限範圍內適用於這些組織。

Article 2 Use of terms


  For the purposes of this Convention:
  (a) “Organized criminal group” shall mean a structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences established in accordance with this Convention, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit;
  (b) “Serious crime” shall mean conduct constituting an offence punishable by a maximum deprivation of liberty of at least four years or a more serious penalty;
  (c) “Structured group” shall mean a group that is not randomly formed for the immediate commission of an offence and that does not need to have formally defined roles for its members, continuity of its membership or a developed structure;
  (d) “Property” shall mean assets of every kind, whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable, tangible or intangible, and legal docxuments or instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such assets;
  (e) “Proceeds of crime” shall mean any property derived from or obtained,directly or indirectly, through the commission of an offence;
  (f) “Freezing” or “seizure” shall mean temporarily prohibiting the transfer,conversion, disposition or movement of property or temporarily assuming custody or control of property on the basis of an order issued by a court or other competent authority;
  (g) “Confiscation”, which includes forfeiture where applicable, shall mean the permanent deprivation of property by order of a court or other competent authority;
  (h) “Predicate offence” shall mean any offence as a result of which proceeds have been generated that may become the subject of an offence as defined in article 6 of this Convention;
  (i) “Controlled delivery” shall mean the technique of allowing illicit or suspect consignments to pass out of, through or into the territory of one or more States, with the knowledge and under the supervision of their competent authorities,with a view to the investigation of an offence and the identification of persons involved in the commission of the offence;
  (j) “Regional economic integration organization” shall mean an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region, to which its member States have transferred competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention and which has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify,accept, approve or accede to it; references to “States Parties” under this Convention shall apply to such organizations within the limits of their competence.

第3條 適用範圍


  1.本公約除非另有規定,應適用於對下述跨國的且涉及有組織犯罪集團的犯罪的預防、偵查和起訴:
  (a)依照本公約第5條第6條第8條第23條確立的犯罪;
  (b)本公約第2條所界定的嚴重犯罪。
  2.就本條第1款而言,有下列情形之一的犯罪屬跨國犯罪:
  (a)在一個以上國家實施的犯罪;
  (b)雖在一國實施,但其準備、籌劃、指揮或控制的實質性部分發生在另一國的犯罪;
  (c)犯罪在一國實施,但涉及在一個以上國家從事犯罪活動的有組織犯罪集團;或
  (d)犯罪在一國實施,但對於另一國有重大影響。

Article 3 Scope of application


  1.This Convention shall apply, except as otherwise stated herein, to the prevention, investigation and prosecution of:
  (a) The offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention; and
  (b) Serious crime as defined in article 2 of this Convention;where the offence is transnational in nature and involves an organized criminal group.
  2.For the purpose of paragraph 1 of this article, an offence is transnational in nature if:
  (a) It is committed in more than one State;
  (b) It is committed in one State but a substantial part of its preparation,planning, direction or control takes place in another State;
  (c) It is committed in one State but involves an organized criminal group that engages in criminal activities in more than one State; or
  (d) It is committed in one State but has substantial effects in another State.

第4條 保護主權


  1.在履行其根據本公約所承擔的義務時,締約國應恪守各國主權平等和領土完整原則和不干涉別國內政原則。
  2.本公約的任何規定均不賦予締約國在另一國領土內行使管轄權和履行該另一國本國法律規定的專屬於該國當局的職能的權利。

Article 4 Protection of sovereignty


  1.States Parties shall carry out their obligations under this Convention in a manner consistent with the principles of sovereign equality and territorial integrity of States and that of non-intervention in the domestic affairs of other States.
  2.Nothing in this Convention entitles a State Party to undertake in the territory of another State the exercise of jurisdiction and performance of functions that are reserved exclusively for the authorities of that other State by its domestic law.

第5條 參加有組織犯罪集團行為的刑事定罪


  1.各締約國均應採取必要的立法和其他措施,將下列故意行為規定為刑事犯罪:
  (a)下列任何一種或兩種有別於未遂或既遂的犯罪的行為:
  (一)為直接或間接獲得金錢或其他物質利益而與一人或多人約定實施嚴重犯罪,如果本國法律要求,還須有其中一名參與者為促進上述約定的實施的行為或涉及有組織犯罪集團;
  (二)明知有組織犯罪集團的目標和一般犯罪活動或其實施有關犯罪的意圖而積極參與下述活動的行為:
  a.有組織犯罪集團的犯罪活動;
  b.明知其本人的參與將有助於實現上述犯罪目標的該有組織犯罪集團的其他活動;
  (b)組織、指揮、協助、教唆、便利或參謀實施涉及有組織犯罪集團的嚴重犯罪。
  2.本條第1款所指的明知、故意、目標、目的或約定可以從客觀實際情況推定。
  3.其本國法律要求根據本條第1款(a)項(一)目確立的犯罪須涉及有組織犯罪集團方可成立的締約國,應確保其本國法律涵蓋所有涉及有組織犯罪集團的嚴重犯罪。這些締約國以及其法律要求根據本條第1款(a)項(一)目確立的犯罪須有促進約定的實施的行為方可成立的締約國,應在其簽署本公約或交存其批准、接受、核准或加入本公約的文書時將此情況通知聯合國秘書長。

Article 5 Criminalization of participation in an organized criminal group


  1.Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
  (a) Either or both of the following as criminal offences distinct from those involving the attempt or completion of the criminal activity:
  (i) Agreeing with one or more other persons to commit a serious crime for a purpose relating directly or indirectly to the obtaining of a financial or other material benefit and, where required by domestic law, involving an act undertaken by one of the participants in furtherance of the agreement or involving an organized criminal group;
  (ii) Conduct by a person who, with knowledge of either the aim and general criminal activity of an organized criminal group or its intention to commit the crimes in question, takes an active part in:
  a.Criminal activities of the organized criminal group;
  b.Other activities of the organized criminal group in the knowledge that his or her participation will contribute to the achievement of the abovedescribed criminal aim;
  (b) Organizing, directing, aiding, abetting, facilitating or counselling the commission of serious crime involving an organized criminal group.
  2.The knowledge, intent, aim, purpose or agreement referred to in paragraph 1 of this article may be inferred from objective factual circumstances.
  3.States Parties whose domestic law requires involvement of an organized criminal group for purposes of the offences established in accordance with paragraph 1 (a) (i) of this article shall ensure that their domestic law covers all serious crimes involving organized criminal groups.Such States Parties, as well as States Parties whose domestic law requires an act in furtherance of the agreement for purposes of the offences established in accordance with paragraph 1 (a) (i) of this article, shall so inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations at the time of their signature or of deposit of their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention.

回索引〉〉

第6條 洗錢行為的刑事定罪


  1.各締約國均應依照其本國法律基本原則採取必要的立法及其他措施,將下列故意行為規定為刑事犯罪:
  (a)(一)明知財產為犯罪所得,為隱瞞或掩飾該財產的非法來源,或為協助任何參與實施上游犯罪者逃避其行為的法律後果而轉換或轉讓財產;
  (二)明知財產為犯罪所得而隱瞞或掩飾該財產的真實性質、來源、所在地、處置、轉移、所有權或有關的權利;
  (b)在符合其本國法律制度基本概念的情況下:
  (一)在得到財產時,明知其為犯罪所得而仍獲取、佔有或使用;
  (二)參與、合夥或共謀實施,實施未遂,以及協助、教唆、便利和參謀實施本條所確立的任何犯罪。
  2.為實施或適用本條第1款:
  (a)各締約國均應尋求將本條第1款適用於範圍最為廣泛的上游犯罪;
  (b)各締約國均應將本公約第2條所界定的所有嚴重犯罪和根據本公約第5條第8條第23條確立的犯罪列為上游犯罪。締約國立法中如果明確列出上游犯罪清單,則至少應在這類清單中列出與有組織犯罪集團有關的範圍廣泛的各種犯罪;
  (c)就(b)項而言,上游犯罪應包括在有關締約國刑事管轄權範圍之內和之外發生的犯罪。但是,如果犯罪發生在一締約國刑事管轄權範圍以外,則只有該行為根據其發生時所在國本國法律為刑事犯罪,而且若發生在實施或適用本條的締約國時根據該國法律也構成刑事犯罪時才構成上游犯罪;
  (d)各締約國均應向聯合國秘書長提供其實施本條的法律以及這類法律隨後的任何修改的副本或說明;
  (e)如果締約國本國法律基本原則要求,則可以規定本條第1款所列犯罪不適用於實施上游犯罪的人;
  (f)本條第1款所規定的作為犯罪要素的明知、故意或目的可根據客觀實際情況推定。

Article 6 Criminalization of the laundering of proceeds of crime


  1.Each State Party shall adopt, in accordance with fundamental principles of its domestic law, such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
  (a) (i) The conversion or transfer of property, knowing that such property is the proceeds of crime, for the purpose of concealing or disguising the illicit origin of the property or of helping any person who is involved in the commission of the predicate offence to evade the legal consequences of his or her action;
  (ii) The concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, location, disposition, movement or ownership of or rights with respect to property,knowing that such property is the proceeds of crime;
  (b) Subject to the basic concepts of its legal system:
  (i) The acquisition, possession or use of property, knowing, at the time of receipt, that such property is the proceeds of crime;
  (ii) Participation in, association with or conspiracy to commit, attempts to commit and aiding, abetting, facilitating and counselling the commission of any of the offences established in accordance with this article.
  2.For purposes of implementing or applying paragraph 1 of this article:
  (a) Each State Party shall seek to apply paragraph 1 of this article to the widest range of predicate offences;
  (b) Each State Party shall include as predicate offences all serious crime as defined in article 2 of this Convention and the offences established in accordance with articles 5, 8 and 23 of this Convention.In the case of States Parties whose legislation sets out a list of specific predicate offences, they shall, at a minimum,include in such list a comprehensive range of offences associated with organized criminal groups;
  (c) For the purposes of subparagraph (b), predicate offences shall include offences committed both within and outside the jurisdiction of the State Party in question.However, offences committed outside the jurisdiction of a State Party shall constitute predicate offences only when the relevant conduct is a criminal offence under the domestic law of the State where it is committed and would be a criminal offence under the domestic law of the State Party implementing or applying this article had it been committed there;
  (d) Each State Party shall furnish copies of its laws that give effect to this article and of any subsequent changes to such laws or a description thereof to the Secretary-General of the United Nations;
  (e) If required by fundamental principles of the domestic law of a State Party, it may be provided that the offences set forth in paragraph 1 of this article do not apply to the persons who committed the predicate offence;
  (f) Knowledge, intent or purpose required as an element of an offence set forth in paragraph 1 of this article may be inferred from objective factual circumstances.

第7條 打擊洗錢活動的措施


  1.各締約國均應:
  (a)在其力所能及的範圍內,建立對銀行和非銀行金融機構及在適當情況下對其他特別易被用於洗錢的機構的綜合性國內管理和監督制度,以便制止並查明各種形式的洗錢。這種制度應強調驗證客戶身份、保持記錄和報告可疑的交易等項規定;
  (b)在不影響本公約第18條第27條的情況下,確保行政、管理、執法和其他負責打擊洗錢的當局(本國法律許可時可包括司法當局)能夠根據其本國法律規定的條件,在國家和國際一級開展合作和交換信息,並應為此目的考慮建立作為國家級中心的金融情報機構,以收集、分析和傳播有關潛在的洗錢活動的信息。
  2.締約國應考慮採取切實可行的措施調查和監督現金和有關流通票據出入本國國境的情況,但須有保障措施以確保情報的妥善使用且不致以任何方式妨礙合法資本的流動。這類措施可包括要求個人和企業報告大額現金和有關流通票據的跨境劃撥。
  3.在建立本條所規定的國內管理和監督制度時,籲請締約國在不影響本公約的任何其他條款的情況下將各種區域、區域間和多邊組織的有關反洗錢倡議作為指南。
  4.締約國應努力為打擊洗錢而發展和促進司法、執法和金融管理當局間的全球、區域、分區域和雙邊合作。

Article 7 Measures to combat money-laundering


  1.Each State Party:
  (a) Shall institute a comprehensive domestic regulatory and supervisory regime for banks and non-bank financial institutions and, where appropriate, other bodies particularly susceptible to money-laundering, within its competence, in order to deter and detect all forms of money-laundering, which regime shall emphasize requirements for customer identification, record-keeping and the reporting of suspicious transactions;
  (b) Shall, without prejudice to articles 18 and 27 of this Convention, ensure that administrative, regulatory, law enforcement and other authorities dedicated to combating money-laundering (including, where appropriate under domestic law,judicial authorities) have the ability to cooperate and exchange information at the national and international levels within the conditions prescribed by its domestic law and, to that end, shall consider the establishment of a financial intelligence unit to serve as a national centre for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding potential money-laundering.
  2.States Parties shall consider implementing feasible measures to detect and monitor the movement of cash and appropriate negotiable instruments across their borders, subject to safeguards to ensure proper use of information and without impeding in any way the movement of legitimate capital.Such measures may include a requirement that individuals and businesses report the cross-border transfer of substantial quantities of cash and appropriate negotiable instruments.
  3.In establishing a domestic regulatory and supervisory regime under the terms of this article, and without prejudice to any other article of this Convention,States Parties are called upon to use as a guideline the relevant initiatives of regional, interregional and multilateral organizations against money-laundering.
  4.States Parties shall endeavour to develop and promote global, regional,subregional and bilateral cooperation among judicial, law enforcement and financial regulatory authorities in order to combat money-laundering.

第8條 腐敗行為的刑事定罪


  1.各締約國均應採取必要的立法和其他措施,將下列故意行為規定為刑事犯罪:
  (a)直接或間接向公職人員許諾、提議給予或給予該公職人員或其他人員或實體不應有的好處,以使該公職人員在執行公務時作為或不作為;
  (b)公職人員為其本人或其他人員或實體直接或間接索取或接受不應有的好處,以作為其在執行公務時作為或不作為的條件。
  2.各締約國均應考慮採取必要的立法和其他措施,以便將本條第1款所述涉及外國公職人員或國際公務員的行為規定為刑事犯罪。各締約國同樣也應考慮將其他形式的腐敗行為規定為刑事犯罪。
  3.各締約國還應採取必要的措施,將作為共犯參與根據本條所確立的犯罪規定為刑事犯罪。
  4.本公約本條第1款和第9條中的“公職人員”,係指任職者任職地國法律所界定的且適用於該國刑法的公職人員或提供公共服務的人員。

Article 8 Criminalization of corruption


  1.Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
  (a) The promise, offering or giving to a public official, directly or indirectly,of an undue advantage, for the official himself or herself or another person or entity,in order that the official act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her official duties;
  (b) The solicitation or acceptance by a public official, directly or indirectly,of an undue advantage, for the official himself or herself or another person or entity,in order that the official act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her official duties.
  2.Each State Party shall consider adopting such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences conduct referred to in paragraph 1 of this article involving a foreign public official or international civil servant.Likewise, each State Party shall consider establishing as criminal offences other forms of corruption.
  3.Each State Party shall also adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as a criminal offence participation as an accomplice in an offence established in accordance with this article.
  4.For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this article and article 9 of this Convention, “public official” shall mean a public official or a person who provides a public service as defined in the domestic law and as applied in the criminal law of the State Party in which the person in question performs that function.

第9條 反腐敗措施


  1.除本公約第8條所列各項措施外,各締約國均應在適當時並在符合其法律制度的情況下,採取立法、行政或其他有效措施,以促進公職人員廉潔奉公,並預防、調查和懲治腐敗行為。
  2.各締約國均應採取措施,確保本國當局在預防、調查和懲治公職人員腐敗行為方面採取有效行動,包括使該當局具備適當的獨立性,以免其行動受到不適當的影響。

Article 9 Measures against corruption


  1.In addition to the measures set forth in article 8 of this Convention, each State Party shall, to the extent appropriate and consistent with its legal system, adopt legislative, administrative or other effective measures to promote integrity and to prevent, detect and punish the corruption of public officials.
  2.Each State Party shall take measures to ensure effective action by its authorities in the prevention, detection and punishment of the corruption of public officials, including providing such authorities with adequate independence to deter the exertion of inappropriate influence on their actions.

第10條 法人責任


  1.各締約國均應採取符合其法律原則的必要措施,確定法人參與涉及有組織犯罪集團的嚴重犯罪和實施根據本公約第5條第6條第8條第23條確立的犯罪時應承擔的責任。
  2.在不違反締約國法律原則的情況下,法人責任可包括刑事、民事或行政責任。
  3.法人責任不應影響實施此種犯罪的自然人的刑事責任。
  4.各締約國均應特別確保使根據本條負有責任的法人受到有效、適度和勸阻性的刑事或非刑事制裁,包括金錢制裁。

Article 10 Liability of legal persons


  1.Each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary,consistent with its legal principles, to establish the liability of legal persons for participation in serious crimes involving an organized criminal group and for the offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention.
  2.Subject to the legal principles of the State Party, the liability of legal persons may be criminal, civil or administrative.
  3.Such liability shall be without prejudice to the criminal liability of the natural persons who have committed the offences.
  4.Each State Party shall, in particular, ensure that legal persons held liablein accordance with this article are subject to effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal or non-criminal sanctions, including monetary sanctions.

第11條 起訴、判決和制裁


  1.各締約國均應使根據本公約第5條第6條第8條第23條確立的犯罪受到與其嚴重性相當的制裁。
  2.為因本公約所涵蓋的犯罪起訴某人而行使本國法律規定的法律裁量權時,各締約國均應努力確保針對這些犯罪的執法措施取得最大成效,並適當考慮到震懾此種犯罪的必要性。
  3.就根據本公約第5條第6條第8條第23條確立的犯罪而言,各締約國均應根據其本國法律並在適當考慮到被告方權利的情況下採取適當措施,力求確保所規定的與審判或上訴前釋放的裁決有關的條件考慮到確保被告人在其後的刑事訴訟中出庭的需要。
  4.各締約國均應確保其法院和其他有關當局在考慮早釋或假釋已被判定犯有本公約所涵蓋的犯罪者的可能性時,顧及此種犯罪的嚴重性。
  5.各締約國均應在適當情況下在其本國法律中對於本公約所涵蓋的任何犯罪規定一個較長的追訴時效期限,並在被指控犯罪的人逃避司法處置時規定更長的期限。
  6.本公約的任何規定,概不影響根據本公約確立的犯罪和適用的法律辯護理由或決定行為合法性的其他法律原則只應由締約國本國法律加以闡明,而且此種犯罪應根據該法律予以起訴和處罰的原則。

Article 11 Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions


  1.Each State Party shall make the commission of an offence established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention liable to sanctions that take into account the gravity of that offence.
  2.Each State Party shall endeavour to ensure that any discretionary legal powers under its domestic law relating to the prosecution of persons for offences covered by this Convention are exercised to maximize the effectiveness of law enforcement measures in respect of those offences and with due regard to the need to deter the commission of such offences.
  3.In the case of offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention, each State Party shall take appropriate measures, in accordance with its domestic law and with due regard to the rights of the defence, to seek to ensure that conditions imposed in connection with decisions on release pending trial or appeal take into consideration the need to ensure the presence of the defendant at subsequent criminal proceedings.
  4.Each State Party shall ensure that its courts or other competent authorities bear in mind the grave nature of the offences covered by this Convention when considering the eventuality of early release or parole of persons convicted of such offences.
  5.Each State Party shall, where appropriate, establish under its domestic law a long statute of limitations period in which to commence proceedings for any offence covered by this Convention and a longer period where the alleged offender has evaded the administration of justice.
  6.Nothing contained in this Convention shall affect the principle that the description of the offences established in accordance with this Convention and of the applicable legal defences or other legal principles controlling the lawfulness of conduct is reserved to the domestic law of a State Party and that such offences shall be prosecuted and punished in accordance with that law.

第12條 沒收和扣押


  1.締約國應在本國法律制度的範圍內盡最大可能採取必要措施,以便能夠沒收:
  (a)來自本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的犯罪所得或價值與其相當的財產;
  (b)用於或擬用於本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的財產、設備或其他工具。
  2.締約國應採取必要措施,辨認、追查、凍結或扣押本條第1款所述任何物品,以便最終予以沒收。
  3.如果犯罪所得已經部分或全部轉變或轉化為其他財產,則應對此類財產適用本條所述措施。
  4.如果犯罪所得已與從合法來源獲得的財產相混合,則應在不影響凍結權或扣押權的情況下沒收這類財產,沒收價值可達混合於其中的犯罪所得的估計價值。
  5.對於來自犯罪所得、來自由犯罪所得轉變或轉化而成的財產或已與犯罪所得相混合的財產所產生的收入或其他利益,也應適用本條所述措施,其方式和程度與處置犯罪所得相同。
  6.為本公約本條和第13條的目的,各締約國均應使其法院或其他主管當局有權下令提供或扣押銀行、財務或商務記錄。締約國不得以銀行保密為由拒絕按照本款規定採取行動。
  7.締約國可考慮要求由犯罪的人證明應予沒收的涉嫌犯罪所得或其他財產的合法來源,但此種要求應符合其本國法律原則和司法及其他程序的性質。
  8.不得對本條規定作損害善意第三人權利的解釋。
  9.本條任何規定均不得影響本條所述措施應根據締約國本國法律規定予以確定和實施的原則。

Article 12 Confiscation and seizure


  1.States Parties shall adopt, to the greatest extent possible within their domestic legal systems, such measures as may be necessary to enable confiscation of:
  (a) Proceeds of crime derived from offences covered by this Convention or property the value of which corresponds to that of such proceeds;
  (b) Property, equipment or other instrumentalities used in or destined for use in offences covered by this Convention.
  2.States Parties shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to enable the identification, tracing, freezing or seizure of any item referred to in paragraph 1 of this article for the purpose of eventual confiscation.
  3.If proceeds of crime have been transformed or converted, in part or in full, into other property, such property shall be liable to the measures referred to in this article instead of the proceeds.
  4.If proceeds of crime have been intermingled with property acquired from legitimate sources, such property shall, without prejudice to any powers relating to freezing or seizure, be liable to confiscation up to the assessed value of the intermingled proceeds.
  5.Income or other benefits derived from proceeds of crime, from property into which proceeds of crime have been transformed or converted or from property with which proceeds of crime have been intermingled shall also be liable to the measures referred to in this article, in the same manner and to the same extent asproceeds of crime.
  6.For the purposes of this article and article 13 of this Convention, each State Party shall empower its courts or other competent authorities to order that bank, financial or commercial records be made available or be seized.States Parties shall not decline to act under the provisions of this paragraph on the ground of banksecrecy.
  7.States Parties may consider the possibility of requiring that an offender demonstrate the lawful origin of alleged proceeds of crime or other property liable to confiscation, to the extent that such a requirement is consistent with the principles of their domestic law and with the nature of the judicial and other proceedings.
  8.The provisions of this article shall not be construed to prejudice the rights of bona fide third parties.
  9.Nothing contained in this article shall affect the principle that the measures to which it refers shall be defined and implemented in accordance with and subject to the provisions of the domestic law of a State Party.

第13條 沒收事宜的國際合作


  1.締約國在收到對本公約所涵蓋的一項犯罪擁有管轄權的另一締約國關於沒收本公約第12條第1款所述的、位於被請求國領土內的犯罪所得、財產、設備或其他工具的請求後,應在本國國內法律制度的範圍內盡最大可能:
  (a)將此種請求提交其主管當局,以便取得沒收令並在取得沒收令時予以執行;或
  (b)將請求締約國領土內的法院根據本公約第12條第1款簽發的沒收令提交主管當局,以便按請求的範圍予以執行,只要該沒收令涉及第12條第1款所述的、位於被請求締約國領土內的犯罪所得、財產、設備或其他工具。
  2.對本公約所涵蓋的一項犯罪擁有管轄權的另一締約國提出請求後,被請求締約國應採取措施,辨認、追查和凍結或扣押本公約第12條第1款所述犯罪所得、財產、設備或其他工具,以便由請求締約國或根據本條第1款所述請求由被請求締約國下令最終予以沒收。
  3.本公約第18條的規定可經適當變通適用於本條。除第18條第15款規定提供的資料以外,根據本條所提出的請求還應包括:
  (a)與本條第1款(a)項有關的請求,應有關於擬予沒收的財產的說明以及關於請求締約國所依據的事實的充分陳述,以便被請求締約國能夠根據本國法律取得沒收令;
  (b)與本條第1款(b)項有關的請求,應有請求締約國據以簽發請求的、法律上可接受的沒收令副本、事實陳述和關於請求執行沒收令的範圍的資料;
  (c)與本條第2款有關的請求,應有請求締約國所依據的事實陳述以及對請求採取的行動的說明。
  4.被請求締約國根據本條第1和第2款作出的決定或採取的行動,應符合並遵循其本國法律及程序規則的規定或可能約束其與請求締約國關係的任何雙邊或多邊條約、協定或安排的規定。
  5.各締約國均應向聯合國秘書長提供有關實施本條的任何法律和法規以及這類法律和法規隨後的任何修改的副本或說明。
  6.如果某一締約國以存在有關條約作為採取本條第1款和第2款所述措施的條件,則該締約國應將本公約視為必要而充分的條約依據。
  7.如果請求中所涉犯罪並非本公約所涵蓋的犯罪,締約國可拒絕提供本條所規定的合作。
  8.不得對本條規定作損害善意第三人權利的解釋。
  9.締約國應考慮締結雙邊或多邊條約、協定或安排,以增強根據本條開展的國際合作的有效性。

Article 13 International cooperation for purposes of confiscation


  1.A State Party that has received a request from another State Party having jurisdiction over an offence covered by this Convention for confiscation of proceeds of crime, property, equipment or other instrumentalities referred to in article 12,paragraph 1, of this Convention situated in its territory shall, to the greatest extent possible within its domestic legal system:
  (a) Submit the request to its competent authorities for the purpose of obtaining an order of confiscation and, if such an order is granted, give effect to it; or
  (b) Submit to its competent authorities, with a view to giving effect to it to the extent requested, an order of confiscation issued by a court in the territory of the requesting State Party in accordance with article 12, paragraph 1, of this Convention insofar as it relates to proceeds of crime, property, equipment or other instrumentalities referred to in article 12, paragraph 1, situated in the territory of the requested State Party.
  2.Following a request made by another State Party having jurisdiction over an offence covered by this Convention, the requested State Party shall take measures to identify, trace and freeze or seize proceeds of crime, property, equipment or other instrumentalities referred to in article 12, paragraph 1, of this Convention for the purpose of eventual confiscation to be ordered either by the requesting State Party or, pursuant to a request under paragraph 1 of this article, by the requested State Party.
  3.The provisions of article 18 of this Convention are applicable, mutatis mutandis, to this article.In addition to the information specified in article 18,paragraph 15, requests made pursuant to this article shall contain:
  (a) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 1 (a) of this article, a description of the property to be confiscated and a statement of the facts relied upon by the requesting State Party sufficient to enable the requested State Party to seek the order under its domestic law;
  (b) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 1 (b) of this article, a legally admissible copy of an order of confiscation upon which the request is based issued by the requesting State Party, a statement of the facts and information as to the extent to which execution of the order is requested;
  (c) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 2 of this article, a statement of the facts relied upon by the requesting State Party and a description of the actions requested.
  4.The decisions or actions provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article shall be taken by the requested State Party in accordance with and subject to the provisions of its domestic law and its procedural rules or any bilateral or multilateral treaty, agreement or arrangement to which it may be bound in relation to the requesting State Party.
  5.Each State Party shall furnish copies of its laws and regulations that give effect to this article and of any subsequent changes to such laws and regulations or a description thereof to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  6.If a State Party elects to make the taking of the measures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article conditional on the existence of a relevant treaty,that State Party shall consider this Convention the necessary and sufficient treaty basis.
  7.Cooperation under this article may be refused by a State Party if the offence to which the request relates is not an offence covered by this Convention.
  8.The provisions of this article shall not be construed to prejudice the rights of bona fide third parties.
  9.States Parties shall consider concluding bilateral or multilateral treaties,agreements or arrangements to enhance the effectiveness of international cooperation undertaken pursuant to this article.

第14條 沒收的犯罪所得或財產的處置


  1.締約國依照本公約第12條第13條第1款沒收的犯罪所得或財產應由該締約國根據其本國法律和行政程序予以處置。
  2.根據本公約第13條的規定應另一締約國請求採取行動的締約國,應在本國法律許可的範圍內,根據請求優先考慮將沒收的犯罪所得或財產交還請求締約國,以便其對犯罪被害人進行賠償,或者將這類犯罪所得或財產歸還合法所有人。
  3.一締約國應另一締約國請求按照本公約第12條第13條規定採取行動時,可特別考慮就下述事項締結協定或安排:
  (a)將與這類犯罪所得或財產價值相當的款項,或變賣這類犯罪所得或財產所獲款項,或這類款項的一部分捐給根據本公約第30條第2款(c)項所指定的帳戶和專門從事打擊有組織犯罪工作的政府間機構;
  (b)根據本國法律或行政程序,經常地或逐案地與其他締約國分享這類犯罪所得或財產或變賣這類犯罪所得或財產所獲款項。

Article 14 Disposal of confiscated proceeds of crime or property


  1.Proceeds of crime or property confiscated by a State Party pursuant to articles 12 or 13, paragraph 1, of this Convention shall be disposed of by that State Party in accordance with its domestic law and administrative procedures.
  2.When acting on the request made by another State Party in accordance with article 13 of this Convention, States Parties shall, to the extent permitted by domestic law and if so requested, give priority consideration to returning the confiscated proceeds of crime or property to the requesting State Party so that it can give compensation to the victims of the crime or return such proceeds of crime or property to their legitimate owners.
  3.When acting on the request made by another State Party in accordance with articles 12 and 13 of this Convention, a State Party may give special consideration to concluding agreements or arrangements on:
  (a) Contributing the value of such proceeds of crime or property or funds derived from the sale of such proceeds of crime or property or a part thereof to the account designated in accordance with article 30, paragraph 2 (c), of this Convention and to intergovernmental bodies specializing in the fight againstorganized crime;
  (b) Sharing with other States Parties, on a regular or case-by-case basis, such proceeds of crime or property, or funds derived from the sale of such proceeds of crime or property, in accordance with its domestic law or administrative procedures.

第15條 管轄權


  1.各締約國在下列情況下應採取必要措施,以確立對根據本公約第5條第6條第8條第23條確立犯罪的管轄權:
  (a)犯罪發生在該締約國領域內;或者
  (b)犯罪發生在犯罪時懸掛該締約國國旗的船隻或已根據該締約國法律註冊的航空器內。
  2.在不違反本公約第4條規定的情況下,締約國在下列情況下還可對任何此種犯罪確立其管轄權:
  (a)犯罪係針對該締約國國民;
  (b)犯罪者為該締約國國民或在其境內有慣常居所的無國籍人;或者
  (c)該犯罪係:
  (一)發生在本國領域以外的、根據本公約第5條第1款確立的犯罪,目的是在本國領域內實施嚴重犯罪;
  (二)發生在本國領域以外的、根據本公約第6條第1款(b)項(二)目確立的犯罪,目的是在其領域內進行本公約第6條第1款(a)項(一)目或(二)目或(b)項(一)目確立的犯罪。
  3.為了本公約第16條第10款的目的,各締約國應採取必要措施,在被指控人在其領域內而其僅因該人係其本國國民而不予引渡時,確立其對本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的管轄權。
  4.各締約國還可採取必要措施,在被指控人在其領域內而其不引渡該人時確立其對本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的管轄權。
  5.如果根據本條第1款或第2款行使其管轄權的締約國被告知或通過其他途徑獲悉另一個或數個締約國正在對同一行為進行偵查、起訴或審判程序,這些國家的主管當局應酌情相互磋商,以便協調行動。
  6.在不影響一般國際法準則的情況下,本公約不排除締約國行使其依據本國法律確立的任何刑事管轄權。

Article 15 Jurisdiction


  1.Each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences established in accordance with articles 5,6, 8 and 23 of this Convention when:
  (a) The offence is committed in the territory of that State Party; or
  (b) The offence is committed on board a vessel that is flying the flag of that State Party or an aircraft that is registered under the laws of that State Party at the time that the offence is committed.
  2.Subject to article 4 of this Convention, a State Party may also establish its jurisdiction over any such offence when:
  (a) The offence is committed against a national of that State Party;
  (b) The offence is committed by a national of that State Party or a stateless person who has his or her habitual residence in its territory; or
  (c) The offence is:
  (i) One of those established in accordance with article 5, paragraph 1, of this Convention and is committed outside its territory with a view to the commission of a serious crime within its territory;
  (ii) One of those established in accordance with article 6, paragraph 1 (b) (ii),of this Convention and is committed outside its territory with a view to the commission of an offence established in accordance with article 6,paragraph 1 (a) (i) or (ii) or (b) (i), of this Convention within its territory.
  3.For the purposes of article 16, paragraph 10, of this Convention, each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences covered by this Convention when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite such person solely on the ground that he or she is one of its nationals.
  4.Each State Party may also adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences covered by this Convention when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite him or her.
  5.If a State Party exercising its jurisdiction under paragraph 1 or 2 of this article has been notified, or has otherwise learned, that one or more other States Parties are conducting an investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding in respect of the same conduct, the competent authorities of those States Parties shall, asappropriate, consult one another with a view to coordinating their actions.
  6.Without prejudice to norms of general international law, this Convention does not exclude the exercise of any criminal jurisdiction established by a State Party in accordance with its domestic law.

第16條 引渡


  1.本條應適用於本公約所涵蓋的犯罪,或第3條第1款(a)項或(b)項所述犯罪涉及有組織犯罪集團且被請求引渡人位於被請求締約國境內的情況,條件是引渡請求所依據的犯罪是按請求締約國和被請求締約國本國法律均應受到處罰的犯罪。
  2.如果引渡請求包括幾項獨立的嚴重犯罪,其中某些犯罪不在本條範圍之內,被請求締約國也可對這些犯罪適用本條的規定。
  3.本條適用的各項犯罪均應視為締約國之間現行的任何引渡條約中的可引渡的犯罪。各締約國承諾將此種犯罪作為可引渡的犯罪列入它們之間擬締結的每一項引渡條約。
  4.以訂有條約為引渡條件的締約國如接到未與之訂有引渡條約的另一締約國的引渡請求,可將本公約視為對本條所適用的任何犯罪予以引渡的法律依據。
  5.以訂有條約為引渡條件的締約國應:
  (a)在交存本公約批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書時通知聯合國秘書長,說明其是否將把本公約作為與本公約其他締約國進行引渡合作的法律依據;
  (b)如其不以本公約作為引渡合作的法律依據,則在適當情況下尋求與本公約其他締約國締結引渡條約,以執行本條規定。
  6.不以訂有條約為引渡條件的締約國應承認本條所適用的犯罪為它們之間可相互引渡的犯罪。
  7.引渡應符合被請求締約國本國法律或適用的引渡條約所規定的條件,其中特別包括關於引渡的最低限度刑罰要求和被請求締約國可據以拒絕引渡的理由等條件。
  8.對於本條所適用的任何犯罪,締約國應在符合本國法律的情況下,努力加快引渡程序並簡化與之有關的證據要求。
  9.在不違背本國法律及其引渡條約規定的情況下,被請求締約國可在認定情況必要而且緊迫時,應請求締約國的請求,拘留其境內的被請求引渡人或採取其他適當措施,以確保該人在進行引渡程序時在場。
  10.被指控人所在的締約國如果僅以罪犯係本國國民為由不就本條所適用的犯罪將其引渡,則有義務在要求引渡的締約國提出請求時,將該案提交給其主管當局以便起訴,而不得有任何不應有的延誤。這些當局應以與根據本國法律針對性質嚴重的其他任何犯罪所採用的方式相同的方式作出決定和進行訴訟程序。有關締約國應相互合作,特別是在程序和證據方面,以確保這類起訴的效果。
  11.如果締約國本國法律規定,允許引渡或移交其國民須以該人將被送還本國,就引渡或移交請求所涉審判、訴訟中作出的判決服刑為條件,且該締約國和尋求引渡該人的締約國也同意這一選擇以及可能認為適宜的其他條件,則此種有條件引渡或移交即足以解除該締約國根據本條第10款所承擔的義務。
  12.如為執行判決而提出的引渡請求由於被請求引渡人為被請求締約國的國民而遭到拒絕,被請求國應在其本國法律允許並且符合該法律的要求的情況下,根據請求國的請求,考慮執行按請求國本國法律作出的判刑或剩餘刑期。
  13.在對任何人就本條所適用的犯罪進行訴訟時,應確保其在訴訟的所有階段受到公平待遇,包括享有其所在國本國法律所提供的一切權利和保障。
  14.如果被請求締約國有充分理由認為提出該請求是為了以某人的性別、種族、宗教、國籍、族裔或政治觀點為由對其進行起訴或處罰,或按該請求行事將使該人的地位因上述任一原因而受到損害,則不得對本公約的任何規定作規定了被請求國的引渡義務的解釋。
  15.締約國不得僅以犯罪也被視為涉及財政事項為由而拒絕引渡。
  16.被請求締約國在拒絕引渡前應在適當情況下與請求締約國磋商,以使其有充分機會陳述自己的意見和介紹與其指控有關的資料。
  17.各締約國均應尋求締結雙邊和多邊協定或安排,以執行引渡或加強引渡的有效性。

Article 16 Extradition


  1.This article shall apply to the offences covered by this Convention or in cases where an offence referred to in article 3, paragraph 1 (a) or (b), involves an organized criminal group and the person who is the subject of the request for extradition is located in the territory of the requested State Party, provided that the offence for which extradition is sought is punishable under the domestic law of both the requesting State Party and the requested State Party.
  2.If the request for extradition includes several separate serious crimes,some of which are not covered by this article, the requested State Party may apply this article also in respect of the latter offences.
  3.Each of the offences to which this article applies shall be deemed to be included as an extraditable offence in any extradition treaty existing between States Parties.States Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them.
  4.If a State Party that makes extradition conditional on the existence of atreaty receives a request for extradition from another State Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it may consider this Convention the legal basis for extradition in respect of any offence to which this article applies.
  5.States Parties that make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall:
  (a) At the time of deposit of their instrument of ratification, acceptance,approval of or accession to this Convention, inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations whether they will take this Convention as the legal basis for cooperation on extradition with other States Parties to this Convention; and
  (b) If they do not take this Convention as the legal basis for cooperation on extradition, seek, where appropriate, to conclude treaties on extradition with other States Parties to this Convention in order to implement this article.
  6.States Parties that do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize offences to which this article applies as extraditable offences between themselves.
  7.Extradition shall be subject to the conditions provided for by the domestic law of the requested State Party or by applicable extradition treaties,including, inter alia, conditions in relation to the minimum penalty requirement for extradition and the grounds upon which the requested State Party may refuse extradition.
  8.States Parties shall, subject to their domestic law, endeavour to expedite extradition procedures and to simplify evidentiary requirements relating thereto in respect of any offence to which this article applies.
  9.Subject to the provisions of its domestic law and its extradition treaties,the requested State Party may, upon being satisfied that the circumstances so warrant and are urgent and at the request of the requesting State Party, take a person whose extradition is sought and who is present in its territory into custody or take other appropriate measures to ensure his or her presence at extradition proceedings.
  10.A State Party in whose territory an alleged offender is found, if it does not extradite such person in respect of an offence to which this article applies solely on the ground that he or she is one of its nationals, shall, at the request of the State Party seeking extradition, be obliged to submit the case without undue delay to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution.Those authorities shall take their decision and conduct their proceedings in the same manner as in the case of any other offence of a grave nature under the domestic law of that State Party.The States Parties concerned shall cooperate with each other, in particular on procedural and evidentiary aspects, to ensure the efficiency of such prosecution.
  11.Whenever a State Party is permitted under its domestic law to extradite or otherwise surrender one of its nationals only upon the condition that the person will be returned to that State Party to serve the sentence imposed as a result of the trial or proceedings for which the extradition or surrender of the person was sought and that State Party and the State Party seeking the extradition of the person agree with this option and other terms that they may deem appropriate, such conditional extradition or surrender shall be sufficient to discharge the obligation set forth in paragraph 10 of this article.
  12.If extradition, sought for purposes of enforcing a sentence, is refused because the person sought is a national of the requested State Party, the requested Party shall, if its domestic law so permits and in conformity with the requirements of such law, upon application of the requesting Party, consider the enforcement of the sentence that has been imposed under the domestic law of the requesting Party or the remainder thereof.
  13.Any person regarding whom proceedings are being carried out in connection with any of the offences to which this article applies shall be guaranteed fair treatment at all stages of the proceedings, including enjoyment of all the rights and guarantees provided by the domestic law of the State Party in the territory of which that person is present.
  14.Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as imposing an obligation to extradite if the requested State Party has substantial grounds for believing that the request has been made for the purpose of prosecuting or punishing a person on account of that person’s sex, race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin or political opinions or that compliance with the request would cause prejudice to that person’s position for any one of these reasons.
  15.States Parties may not refuse a request for extradition on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.
  16.Before refusing extradition, the requested State Party shall, where appropriate, consult with the requesting State Party to provide it with ample opportunity to present its opinions and to provide information relevant to its allegation.
  17.States Parties shall seek to conclude bilateral and multilateral agreements or arrangements to carry out or to enhance the effectiveness of extradition.

第17條 被判刑人員的移交


  締約國可考慮締結雙邊或多邊協定或安排,將因犯有本公約所涉犯罪而被判監禁或其他形式剝奪自由的人員移交其本國服滿刑期。

Article 17 Transfer of sentenced persons


  States Parties may consider entering into bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements on the transfer to their territory of persons sentenced to imprisonment or other forms of deprivation of liberty for offences covered by this Convention, in order that they may complete their sentences there.

第18條 司法協助


  1.締約國應在對第3條規定的本公約所涵蓋的犯罪進行的偵查、起訴和審判程序中相互提供最大程度的司法協助;在請求締約國有合理理由懷疑第3條第1款(a)項或(b)項所述犯罪具有跨國性時,包括懷疑此種犯罪的被害人、證人、犯罪所得、工具或證據位於被請求締約國而且該項犯罪涉及一有組織犯罪集團時,還應對等地相互給予類似協助。
  2.對於請求締約國根據本公約第10條可能追究法人責任的犯罪所進行的偵查、起訴和審判程序,應當根據被請求締約國的有關的法律、條約、協定和安排,盡可能充分地提供司法協助。
  3.可為下列任何目的請求依據本條給予司法協助:
  (a)向個人獲取證據或陳述;
  (b)送達司法文書;
  (c)執行搜查和扣押並實行凍結;
  (d)檢查物品和場所;
  (e)提供資料、物證以及鑒定結論;
  (f)提供有關文件和記錄的原件或經核證的副本,其中包括政府、銀行、財務、公司或營業記錄;
  (g)為取證目的而辨認或追查犯罪所得、財產、工具或其他物品;
  (h)為有關人員自願在請求締約國出庭提供方便;
  (i)不違反被請求締約國本國法律的任何其他形式的協助。
  4.締約國主管當局如認為與刑事事項有關的資料可能有助於另一國主管當局進行或順利完成調查和刑事訴訟程序,或可促成其根據本公約提出請求,則在不影響本國法律的情況下,可無須事先請求而向該另一國主管當局提供這類資料。
  5.根據本條第4款提供這類資料,不應影響提供資料的主管當局本國所進行的調查和刑事訴訟程序。接收資料的主管當局應遵守對資料保密的要求,即使是暫時保密的要求,或對資料使用的限制。但是,這不應妨礙接收締約國在其訴訟中披露可證明被控告人無罪或罪輕的資料。在這種情況下,接收締約國應在披露前通知提供締約國,而且如果提供締約國要求,還應與其磋商。如果在例外情況下不可能事先通知,接收締約國應毫不遲延地將披露一事通告提供締約國。
  6.本條各項規定概不影響任何其他規範或將要規範整個或部分司法協助問題的雙邊或多邊條約所規定的義務。
  7.如果有關締約國無司法協助條約的約束,則本條第9至29款應適用於根據本條提出的請求。如果有關締約國有這類條約的約束,則適用條約的相應條款,除非這些締約國同意代之以適用本條第9至29款。大力鼓勵締約國在這幾款有助於合作時予以適用。
  8.締約國不得以銀行保密為由拒絕提供本條所規定的司法協助。
  9.締約國可以並非雙重犯罪為由拒絕提供本條所規定的司法協助。但是,被請求締約國可在其認為適當時在其斟酌決定的範圍內提供協助,而不論該行為按被請求締約國本國法律是否構成犯罪。
  10.在一締約國境內羈押或服刑的人,如果被要求到另一締約國進行辨認、作證或提供其他協助,以便為就與本公約所涵蓋的犯罪有關的偵查、起訴或審判程序取得證據,在滿足以下條件的情況下,可予移送:
  (a)該人在知情後自由表示同意;
  (b)雙方締約國主管當局同意,但須符合這些締約國認為適當的條件。
  11.就本條第10款而言:
  (a)該人被移送前往的締約國應有權力和義務羈押被移送人,除非移送締約國另有要求或授權;
  (b)該人被移送前往的締約國應毫不遲延地履行義務,按照雙方締約國主管當局事先達成的協定或其他協議,將該人交還移送締約國羈押;
  (c)該人被移送前往的締約國不得要求移送締約國為該人的交還啟動引渡程序;
  (d)該人在被移送前往的國家的羈押時間應折抵在移送締約國執行的刑期。
  12.除非按照本條第10款和第11款移送該人的締約國同意,無論該人國籍為何,均不得因其在離開移送國國境前的作為、不作為或定罪而在被移送前往的國家境內使其受到起訴、羈押、處罰或對其人身自由實行任何其他限制。
  13.各締約國均應指定一中心當局,使其負責和有權接收司法協助請求並執行請求或將請求轉交主管當局執行。如締約國有實行單獨司法協助制度的特區或領土,可另指定一個對該特區或領土具有同樣職能的中心當局。中心當局應確保所收到的請求的迅速而妥善執行或轉交。中心當局在將請求轉交某一主管當局執行時,應鼓勵該主管當局迅速而妥善地執行請求。各締約國應在交存本公約批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書時將為此目的指定的中心當局通知聯合國秘書長。司法協助請求以及與之有關的任何聯繫文件均應遞交締約國指定的中心當局。此項規定不得損害締約國要求通過外交渠道以及在緊急和可能的情況下經有關締約國同意通過國際刑事警察組織向其傳遞這種請求和聯繫文件的權利。
  14.請求應以被請求締約國能接受的語文以書面形式提出,或在可能情況下以能夠生成書面記錄的任何形式提出,但須能使該締約國鑒定其真偽。各締約國應在其交存本公約批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書時將其所能接受的語文通知聯合國秘書長。在緊急情況下,如經有關締約國同意,請求可以口頭方式提出,但應立即加以書面確認。
  15.司法協助請求書應載有:
  (a)提出請求的當局;
  (b)請求所涉的偵查、起訴或審判程序的事由和性質,以及進行此項偵查、起訴或審判程序的當局的名稱和職能;
  (c)有關事實的概述,但為送達司法文書提出的請求例外;
  (d)對請求協助的事項和請求締約國希望遵循的特定程序細節的說明;
  (e)可能時,任何有關人員的身份、所在地和國籍;
  (f)索取證據、資料或要求採取行動的目的。
  16.被請求締約國可要求提供按照其本國法律執行該請求所必需或有助於執行該請求的補充資料。
  17.請求應根據被請求締約國本國法律執行。在不違反被請求締約國本國法律的情況下,如有可能,應遵循請求書中列明的程序執行。
  18.當在某一締約國境內的某人需作為證人或鑒定人接受另一締約國司法當局詢問,且該人不可能或不宜到請求國出庭,則前一個締約國可應該另一締約國的請求,在可能且符合本國法律基本原則的情況下,允許以電視會議方式進行詢問,締約國可商定由請求締約國司法當局進行詢問且詢問時應有被請求締約國司法當局在場。
  19.未經被請求締約國事先同意,請求締約國不得將被請求締約國提供的資料或證據轉交或用於請求書所述以外的偵查、起訴或審判程序。本款規定不妨礙請求締約國在其訴訟中披露可證明被告人無罪或罪輕的資料或證據。就後一種情形而言,請求締約國應在披露之前通知被請求締約國,並依請求與被請求締約國磋商。如在例外情況下不可能事先通知時,請求締約國應毫不遲延地將披露一事通告被請求締約國。
  20.請求締約國可要求被請求締約國對其提出的請求及其內容保密,但為執行請求所必需時除外。如果被請求締約國不能遵守保密要求,應立即通知請求締約國。
  21.在下列情況下可拒絕提供司法協助:
  (a)請求未按本條的規定提出;
  (b)被請求締約國認為執行請求可能損害其主權、安全、公共秩序或其他基本利益;
  (c)假如被請求締約國當局依其管轄權對任何類似犯罪進行偵查、起訴或審判程序時,其本國法律將會禁止其對此類犯罪採取被請求的行動;
  (d)同意此項請求將違反被請求國關於司法協助的法律制度。
  22.締約國不得僅以犯罪又被視為涉及財政事項為由拒絕司法協助請求。
  23.拒絕司法協助時應說明理由。
  24.被請求締約國應儘快執行司法協助請求,並應盡可能充分地考慮到請求締約國提出的、最好在請求中說明了理由的任何最後期限。被請求締約國應依請求締約國的合理要求就其處理請求的進展情況作出答覆。請求國應在其不再需要被請求國提供所尋求的協助時迅速通知被請求締約國。
  25.被請求締約國可以司法協助妨礙正在進行的偵查、起訴或審判為由而暫緩進行。
  26.在根據本條第21款拒絕某項請求或根據本條第25款暫緩執行請求事項之前,被請求締約國應與請求締約國協商,以考慮是否可在其認為必要的條件下給予協助。請求締約國如果接受附有條件限制的協助,則應遵守有關的條件。
  27.在不影響本條第12款的適用的情況下,應請求締約國請求而同意到請求締約國就某項訴訟作證或為某項偵查、起訴或審判程序提供協助的證人、鑒定人或其他人員,不應因其離開被請求締約國領土之前的作為、不作為或定罪而在請求締約國領土內被起訴、羈押、處罰,或在人身自由方面受到任何其他限制。如該證人、鑒定人或其他人員已得到司法當局不再需要其到場的正式通知,在自通知之日起連續十五天內或在締約國所商定的任何期限內,有機會離開但仍自願留在請求締約國境內,或在離境後又自願返回,則此項安全保障即不再有效。
  28.除非有關締約國另有協議,執行請求的一般費用應由被請求締約國承擔。如執行請求需要或將需要支付巨額或特殊性質的費用,則應由有關締約國進行協商,以確定執行該請求的條件以及承擔費用的辦法。
  29.被請求締約國:
  (a)應向請求締約國提供其所擁有的根據其本國法律可向公眾公開的政府記錄、文件或資料的副本;
  (b)可自行斟酌決定全部或部分地或按其認為適當的條件向請求締約國提供其所擁有的根據其本國法律不向公眾公開的任何政府記錄、文件或資料的副本。
  30.締約國應視需要考慮締結有助於實現本條目的、具體實施或加強本條規定的雙邊或多邊協定或安排的可能性。

Article 18 Mutual legal assistance


  1.States Parties shall afford one another the widest measure of mutual legal assistance in investigations, prosecutions and judicial proceedings in relation to the offences covered by this Convention as provided for in article 3 and shall reciprocally extend to one another similar assistance where the requesting State Party has reasonable grounds to suspect that the offence referred to in article 3,paragraph 1 (a) or (b), is transnational in nature, including that victims, witnesses,proceeds, instrumentalities or evidence of such offences are located in the requested State Party and that the offence involves an organized criminal group.
  2.Mutual legal assistance shall be afforded to the fullest extent possible under relevant laws, treaties, agreements and arrangements of the requested State Party with respect to investigations, prosecutions and judicial proceedings in relation to the offences for which a legal person may be held liable in accordance with article 10 of this Convention in the requesting State Party.
  3.Mutual legal assistance to be afforded in accordance with this article may be requested for any of the following purposes:
  (a) Taking evidence or statements from persons;
  (b) Effecting service of judicial docxuments;
  (c) Executing searches and seizures, and freezing;
  (d) Examining objects and sites;
  (e) Providing information, evidentiary items and expert evaluations;
  (f) Providing originals or certified copies of relevant docxuments and records, including government, bank, financial, corporate or business records;
  (g) Identifying or tracing proceeds of crime, property, instrumentalities or other things for evidentiary purposes;
  (h) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons in the requesting State Party;
  (i) Any other type of assistance that is not contrary to the domestic law of the requested State Party.
  4.Without prejudice to domestic law, the competent authorities of a State Party may, without prior request, transmit information relating to criminal matters to a competent authority in another State Party where they believe that such information could assist the authority in undertaking or successfully concluding inquiries and criminal proceedings or could result in a request formulated by the latter State Party pursuant to this Convention.
  5.The transmission of information pursuant to paragraph 4 of this article shall be without prejudice to inquiries and criminal proceedings in the State of the competent authorities providing the information.The competent authorities receiving the information shall comply with a request that said information remain confidential, even temporarily, or with restrictions on its use.However, this shall not prevent the receiving State Party from disclosing in its proceedings information that is exculpatory to an accused person.In such a case, the receiving State Party shall notify the transmitting State Party prior to the disclosure and, if so requested, consult with the transmitting State Party.If, in an exceptional case, advance notice is not possible, the receiving State Party shall inform the transmitting State Party of the disclosure without delay.
  6.The provisions of this article shall not affect the obligations under any other treaty, bilateral or multilateral, that governs or will govern, in whole or in part,mutual legal assistance.
  7.Paragraphs 9 to 29 of this article shall apply to requests made pursuant to this article if the States Parties in question are not bound by a treaty of mutual legal assistance.If those States Parties are bound by such a treaty, the corresponding provisions of that treaty shall apply unless the States Parties agree to applyparagraphs 9 to 29 of this article in lieu thereof.States Parties are strongly encouraged to apply these paragraphs if they facilitate cooperation.
  8.States Parties shall not decline to render mutual legal assistance pursuant to this article on the ground of bank secrecy.
  9.States Parties may decline to render mutual legal assistance pursuant to this article on the ground of absence of dual criminality.However, the requested State Party may, when it deems appropriate, provide assistance, to the extent it decides at its discretion, irrespective of whether the conduct would constitute an offence under the domestic law of the requested State Party.
  10.A person who is being detained or is serving a sentence in the territory of one State Party whose presence in another State Party is requested for purposes of identification, testimony or otherwise providing assistance in obtaining evidence for investigations, prosecutions or judicial proceedings in relation to offences covered by this Convention may be transferred if the following conditions are met:
  (a) The person freely gives his or her informed consent;
  (b) The competent authorities of both States Parties agree, subject to such conditions as those States Parties may deem appropriate.
  11.For the purposes of paragraph 10 of this article:
  (a) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall have the authority and obligation to keep the person transferred in custody, unless otherwise requested or authorized by the State Party from which the person was transferred;
  (b) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall without delay implement its obligation to return the person to the custody of the State Party from which the person was transferred as agreed beforehand, or as otherwise agreed, by the competent authorities of both States Parties;
  (c) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall not require the State Party from which the person was transferred to initiate extradition proceedings for the return of the person;
  (d) The person transferred shall receive credit for service of the sentence being served in the State from which he or she was transferred for time spent in the custody of the State Party to which he or she was transferred.
  12.Unless the State Party from which a person is to be transferred in accordance with paragraphs 10 and 11 of this article so agrees, that person, whatever his or her nationality, shall not be prosecuted, detained, punished or subjected to any other restriction of his or her personal liberty in the territory of the State to whichthat person is transferred in respect of acts, omissions or convictions prior to his or her departure from the territory of the State from which he or she was transferred.
  13.Each State Party shall designate a central authority that shall have the responsibility and power to receive requests for mutual legal assistance and either to execute them or to transmit them to the competent authorities for execution.Where a State Party has a special region or territory with a separate system of mutual legal assistance, it may designate a distinct central authority that shall have the same function for that region or territory.Central authorities shall ensure the speedy and proper execution or transmission of the requests received.Where the central authority transmits the request to a competent authority for execution, it shall encourage the speedy and proper execution of the request by the competent authority.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be notified of the central authority designated for this purpose at the time each State Party deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention. Requests for mutual legal assistance and any communication related thereto shall betransmitted to the central authorities designated by the States Parties.This requirement shall be without prejudice to the right of a State Party to require that such requests and communications be addressed to it through diplomatic channels and, in urgent circumstances, where the States Parties agree, through the International Criminal Police Organization, if possible.
  14.Requests shall be made in writing or, where possible, by any means capable of producing a written record, in a language acceptable to the requested State Party, under conditions allowing that State Party to establish authenticity.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be notified of the language or languages acceptable to each State Party at the time it deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention.In urgent circumstances and where agreed by the States Parties, requests may be made orally,but shall be confirmed in writing forthwith.
  15.A request for mutual legal assistance shall contain:
  (a) The identity of the authority making the request;
  (b) The subject matter and nature of the investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding to which the request relates and the name and functions of the authority conducting the investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding;
  (c) A summary of the relevant facts, except in relation to requests for the purpose of service of judicial docxuments;
  (d) A description of the assistance sought and details of any particular procedure that the requesting State Party wishes to be followed;
  (e) Where possible, the identity, location and nationality of any person concerned; and
  (f) The purpose for which the evidence, information or action is sought.
  16.The requested State Party may request additional information when it appears necessary for the execution of the request in accordance with its domestic law or when it can facilitate such execution.
  17.A request shall be executed in accordance with the domestic law of the requested State Party and, to the extent not contrary to the domestic law of the requested State Party and where possible, in accordance with the procedures specified in the request.
  18.Wherever possible and consistent with fundamental principles of domestic law, when an individual is in the territory of a State Party and has to be heard as a witness or expert by the judicial authorities of another State Party, the first State Party may, at the request of the other, permit the hearing to take place by video conference if it is not possible or desirable for the individual in question to appear in person in the territory of the requesting State Party.States Parties may agree that the hearing shall be conducted by a judicial authority of the requesting State Party and attended by a judicial authority of the requested State Party.
  19.The requesting State Party shall not transmit or use information or evidence furnished by the requested State Party for investigations, prosecutions or judicial proceedings other than those stated in the request without the prior consent of the requested State Party.Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the requesting State Party from disclosing in its proceedings information or evidence that is exculpatory to an accused person.In the latter case, the requesting State Party shall notify the requested State Party prior to the disclosure and, if so requested, consult with the requested State Party.If, in an exceptional case, advance notice is not possible, the requesting State Party shall inform the requested State Party of the disclosure without delay.
  20.The requesting State Party may require that the requested State Party keep confidential the fact and substance of the request, except to the extent necessary to execute the request.If the requested State Party cannot comply with the requirement of confidentiality, it shall promptly inform the requesting State Party.
  21.Mutual legal assistance may be refused:
  (a) If the request is not made in conformity with the provisions of this article;
  (b) If the requested State Party considers that execution of the request is likely to prejudice its sovereignty, security, ordre public or other essential interests;
  (c) If the authorities of the requested State Party would be prohibited by its domestic law from carrying out the action requested with regard to any similar offence, had it been subject to investigation, prosecution or judicial proceedings under their own jurisdiction;
  (d) If it would be contrary to the legal system of the requested State Party relating to mutual legal assistance for the request to be granted.
  22.States Parties may not refuse a request for mutual legal assistance on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.
  23.Reasons shall be given for any refusal of mutual legal assistance.
  24.The requested State Party shall execute the request for mutual legal assistance as soon as possible and shall take as full account as possible of any deadlines suggested by the requesting State Party and for which reasons are given,preferably in the request.The requested State Party shall respond to reasonable requests by the requesting State Party on progress of its handling of the request.The requesting State Party shall promptly inform the requested State Party when the assistance sought is no longer required.
  25.Mutual legal assistance may be postponed by the requested State Party on the ground that it interferes with an ongoing investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding.
  26.Before refusing a request pursuant to paragraph 21 of this article or postponing its execution pursuant to paragraph 25 of this article, the requested State Party shall consult with the requesting State Party to consider whether assistance may be granted subject to such terms and conditions as it deems necessary.If the requesting State Party accepts assistance subject to those conditions, it shall comply with the conditions.
  27.Without prejudice to the application of paragraph 12 of this article, a witness, expert or other person who, at the request of the requesting State Party,consents to give evidence in a proceeding or to assist in an investigation,prosecution or judicial proceeding in the territory of the requesting State Party shall not be prosecuted, detained, punished or subjected to any other restriction of his or her personal liberty in that territory in respect of acts, omissions or convictions prior to his or her departure from the territory of the requested State Party.Such safe conduct shall cease when the witness, expert or other person having had, for a period of fifteen consecutive days or for any period agreed upon by the States Parties from the date on which he or she has been officially informed that his or her presence is no longer required by the judicial authorities, an opportunity of leaving,has nevertheless remained voluntarily in the territory of the requesting State Party or, having left it, has returned of his or her own free will.
  28.The ordinary costs of executing a request shall be borne by the requested State Party, unless otherwise agreed by the States Parties concerned.If expenses of a substantial or extraordinary nature are or will be required to fulfil the request, the States Parties shall consult to determine the terms and conditions under which the request will be executed, as well as the manner in which the costs shall be borne.
  29.The requested State Party:
  (a) Shall provide to the requesting State Party copies of government records,docxuments or information in its possession that under its domestic law are available to the general public;
  (b) May, at its discretion, provide to the requesting State Party in whole, in part or subject to such conditions as it deems appropriate, copies of any government records, docxuments or information in its possession that under its domestic law are not available to the general public.
  30.States Parties shall consider, as may be necessary, the possibility of concluding bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements that would serve the purposes of, give practical effect to or enhance the provisions of this article.

第19條 聯合調查


  締約國應考慮締結雙邊或多邊協定或安排,以便有關主管當局可據以就涉及一國或多國刑事偵查、起訴或審判程序事由的事宜建立聯合調查機構。如無這類協定或安排,則可在個案基礎上商定進行這類聯合調查。有關締約國應確保擬在其境內進行該項調查的締約國的主權受到充分尊重。

Article 19 Joint investigations


  States Parties shall consider concluding bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements whereby, in relation to matters that are the subject of investigations,prosecutions or judicial proceedings in one or more States, the competent authorities concerned may establish joint investigative bodies.In the absence of suchagreements or arrangements, joint investigations may be undertaken by agreement on a case-by-case basis.The States Parties involved shall ensure that the sovereignty of the State Party in whose territory such investigation is to take place is fully respected.

第20條 特殊偵查手段


  1.各締約國均應在其本國法律基本原則許可的情況下,視可能並根據本國法律所規定的條件採取必要措施,允許其主管當局在其境內適當使用控制下交付並在其認為適當的情況下使用其他特殊偵查手段,如電子或其他形式的監視和特工行動,以有效地打擊有組織犯罪。
  2.為偵查本公約所涵蓋的犯罪,鼓勵締約國在必要時為在國際一級合作時使用這類特殊偵查手段而締結適當的雙邊或多邊協定或安排。此類協定或安排的締結和實施應充分遵循各國主權平等原則,執行時應嚴格遵守這類協定或安排的條件。
  3.在無本條第2款所列協定或安排的情況下,關於在國際一級使用這種特殊偵查手段的決定,應在個案基礎上作出,必要時還可考慮到有關締約國就行使管轄權所達成的財務安排或諒解。
  4.經各有關締約國同意,關於在國際一級使用控制下交付的決定,可包括諸如攔截貨物後允許其原封不動地或將其全部或部分取出替換後繼續運送之類的辦法。

Article 20 Special investigative techniques


  1.If permitted by the basic principles of its domestic legal system, each State Party shall, within its possibilities and under the conditions prescribed by its domestic law, take the necessary measures to allow for the appropriate use of controlled delivery and, where it deems appropriate, for the use of other specialinvestigative techniques, such as electronic or other forms of surveillance and undercover operations, by its competent authorities in its territory for the purpose of effectively combating organized crime.
  2.For the purpose of investigating the offences covered by this Convention,States Parties are encouraged to conclude, when necessary, appropriate bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements for using such special investigative techniques in the context of cooperation at the international level.Such agreementsor arrangements shall be concluded and implemented in full compliance with the principle of sovereign equality of States and shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the terms of those agreements or arrangements.
  3.In the absence of an agreement or arrangement as set forth in paragraph 2 of this article, decisions to use such special investigative techniques at the international level shall be made on a case-by-case basis and may, when necessary,take into consideration financial arrangements and understandings with respect to the exercise of jurisdiction by the States Parties concerned.
  4.Decisions to use controlled delivery at the international level may, with the consent of the States Parties concerned, include methods such as intercepting and allowing the goods to continue intact or be removed or replaced in whole or in part.

第21條 刑事訴訟的移交


  締約國如認為相互移交訴訟有利於正當司法,特別是在涉及數國管轄權時,為了使起訴集中,應考慮相互移交訴訟的可能性,以便對本公約所涵蓋的某項犯罪進行刑事訴訟。

Article 21 Transfer of criminal proceedings


  States Parties shall consider the possibility of transferring to one another proceedings for the prosecution of an offence covered by this Convention in cases where such transfer is considered to be in the interests of the proper administration of justice, in particular in cases where several jurisdictions are involved, with a viewto concentrating the prosecution.

第22條 建立犯罪記錄


  各締約國均可採取必要的立法或其他措施,按其認為適宜的條件並為其認為適宜的目的,考慮到另一個國家以前對被指控人作出的任何有罪判決,以便在涉及本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的刑事訴訟中加以利用。

Article 22 Establishment of criminal record


  Each State Party may adopt such legislative or other measures as may be necessary to take into consideration, under such terms as and for the purpose that it deems appropriate, any previous conviction in another State of an alleged offender for the purpose of using such information in criminal proceedings relating to an offence covered by this Convention.

第23條 妨害司法的刑事定罪


  各締約國均應採取必要的立法和其他措施,將下列故意行為規定為刑事犯罪:
  (a)在涉及本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的訴訟中使用暴力、威脅或恐嚇,或許諾、提議給予或給予不應有的好處,以誘使提供虛假證言或干擾證言或證據的提供;
  (b)使用暴力、威脅或恐嚇,干擾司法或執法人員針對本公約所涵蓋的犯罪執行公務。本項規定概不應影響締約國制定保護其他類別公職人員的立法的權利。

Article 23 Criminalization of obstruction of justice


  Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
  (a) The use of physical force, threats or intimidation or the promise, offering or giving of an undue advantage to induce false testimony or to interfere in the giving of testimony or the production of evidence in a proceeding in relation to the commission of offences covered by this Convention;
  (b) The use of physical force, threats or intimidation to interfere with the exercise of official duties by a justice or law enforcement official in relation to the commission of offences covered by this Convention.Nothing in this subparagraph shall prejudice the right of States Parties to have legislation that protects other categories of public officials.

第24條 保護證人


  1.各締約國均應在其力所能及的範圍內採取適當的措施,為刑事訴訟中就本公約所涵蓋的犯罪作證的證人並酌情為其親屬及其他與其關係密切者提供有效的保護,使其免遭可能的報復或恐嚇。
  2.在不影響被告人的權利包括正當程序權的情況下,本條第1款所述措施可包括:
  (a)制定向此種人提供人身保護的程序,例如,在必要和可行的情況下將其轉移,並在適當情況下允許不披露或限制披露有關其身份和下落的情況;
  (b)規定可允許以確保證人安全的方式作證的證據規則,例如,允許借助於諸如視像連接之類的通信技術或其他適當手段提供證言。
  3.締約國應考慮與其他國家訂立有關轉移本條第1款所述人員的安排。
  4.本條的規定也應適用於作為證人的被害人。

Article 24 Protection of witnesses


  1.Each State Party shall take appropriate measures within its means to provide effective protection from potential retaliation or intimidation for witnesses in criminal proceedings who give testimony concerning offences covered by this Convention and, as appropriate, for their relatives and other persons close to them.
  2.The measures envisaged in paragraph 1 of this article may include, inter alia,without prejudice to the rights of the defendant, including the right to due process:
  (a) Establishing procedures for the physical protection of such persons, such as, to the extent necessary and feasible, relocating them and permitting, where appropriate, non-disclosure or limitations on the disclosure of information concerning the identity and whereabouts of such persons;
  (b) Providing evidentiary rules to permit witness testimony to be given in a manner that ensures the safety of the witness, such as permitting testimony to be given through the use of communications technology such as video links or other adequate means.
  3.States Parties shall consider entering into agreements or arrangements with other States for the relocation of persons referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.
  4.The provisions of this article shall also apply to victims insofar as they are witnesses.

第25條 幫助和保護被害人


  1.各締約國均應在其力所能及的範圍內採取適當的措施,以便向本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的被害人提供幫助和保護,尤其是在其受到報復威脅或恐嚇的情況下。
  2.各締約國均應制定適當的程序,使本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的被害人有機會獲得賠償和補償。
  3.各締約國均應在符合其本國法律的情況下,在對犯罪的人提起的刑事訴訟的適當階段,以不損害被告人權利的方式使被害人的意見和關切得到表達和考慮。

Article 25 Assistance to and protection of victims


  1.Each State Party shall take appropriate measures within its means to provide assistance and protection to victims of offences covered by this Convention,in particular in cases of threat of retaliation or intimidation.
  2.Each State Party shall establish appropriate procedures to provide access to compensation and restitution for victims of offences covered by this Convention.
  3.Each State Party shall, subject to its domestic law, enable views and concerns of victims to be presented and considered at appropriate stages of criminal proceedings against offenders in a manner not prejudicial to the rights of the defence.

第26條 加強與執法當局合作的措施


  1.各締約國均應採取適當措施,鼓勵參與或曾參與有組織犯罪集團的個人:
  (a)為主管當局的偵查和取證提供有用資訊,例如:
  (一)有組織犯罪集團的身份、性質、組成情況、結構、所在地或活動;
  (二)與其他有組織犯罪集團之間的聯繫,包括國際聯繫;
  (三)有組織犯罪集團所實施或可能實施的犯罪;
  (b)為主管當局提供可能有助於剝奪有組織犯罪集團的資源或犯罪所得的切實而具體的幫助。
  2.對於在本公約所涵蓋的任何犯罪的偵查或起訴中提供了實質性配合的被指控者,各締約國均應考慮規定在適當情況下減輕處罰的可能性。
  3.對於本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的偵查或起訴中予以實質性配合者,各締約國均應考慮根據其本國法律基本原則規定允許免予起訴的可能性。
  4.應按本公約第24條的規定為此類人員提供保護。
  5.如果本條第1款所述的、位於一締約國的人員能給予另一締約國主管當局以實質性配合,有關締約國可考慮根據其本國法律訂立關於由對方締約國提供本條第2款和第3款所列待遇的協定或安排。

Article 26 Measures to enhance cooperation with law enforcement authorities


  1.Each State Party shall take appropriate measures to encourage persons who participate or who have participated in organized criminal groups:
  (a) To supply information useful to competent authorities for investigative and evidentiary purposes on such matters as:
  (i) The identity, nature, composition, structure, location or activities of organized criminal groups;
  (ii) Links, including international links, with other organized criminal groups;
  (iii) Offences that organized criminal groups have committed or may commit;
  (b) To provide factual, concrete help to competent authorities that may contribute to depriving organized criminal groups of their resources or of the proceeds of crime.
  2.Each State Party shall consider providing for the possibility, in appropriate cases, of mitigating punishment of an accused person who provides substantial cooperation in the investigation or prosecution of an offence covered by this Convention.
  3.Each State Party shall consider providing for the possibility, in accordance with fundamental principles of its domestic law, of granting immunity from prosecution to a person who provides substantial cooperation in the investigation or prosecution of an offence covered by this Convention.
  4.Protection of such persons shall be as provided for in article 24 of this Convention.
  5.Where a person referred to in paragraph 1 of this article located in one State Party can provide substantial cooperation to the competent authorities of another State Party, the States Parties concerned may consider entering into agreements or arrangements, in accordance with their domestic law, concerning the potential provision by the other State Party of the treatment set forth in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article.

第27條 執法合作


  1.締約國應在符合本國法律和行政管理制度的情況下相互密切合作,以加強打擊本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的執法行動的有效性。各締約國尤其應採取有效措施,以便:
  (a)加強並在必要時建立各國主管當局、機構和部門之間的聯繫渠道,以促進安全、迅速地交換有關本公約所涵蓋犯罪的各個方面的情報,有關締約國認為適當時還可包括與其他犯罪活動的聯繫的有關情報;
  (b)同其他締約國合作,就以下與本公約所涵蓋的犯罪有關的事項進行調查:
  (一)涉嫌這類犯罪的人的身份、行蹤和活動,或其他有關人員的所在地點;
  (二)來自這類犯罪的犯罪所得或財產的去向;
  (三)用於或企圖用於實施這類犯罪的財產、設備或其他工具的去向;
  (c)在適當情況下提供必要數目或數量的物品以供分析或調查之用;
  (d)促進各締約國主管當局、機構和部門之間的有效協調,並加強人員和其他專家的交流,包括根據有關締約國之間的雙邊協定和安排派出聯絡官員;
  (e)與其他締約國交換關於有組織犯罪集團採用的具體手段和方法的資料,視情況包括關於路線和交通工具,利用假身份、經變造或偽造的證件或其他掩蓋其活動的手段的資料;
  (f)交換情報並協調為儘早查明本公約所涵蓋的犯罪而酌情採取的行政和其他措施。
  2.為實施本公約,締約國應考慮訂立關於其執法機構間直接合作的雙邊或多邊協定或安排,並在已有這類協定或安排的情況下考慮對其進行修正。如果有關締約國之間尚未訂立這類協定或安排,締約國可考慮以本公約為基礎,進行針對本公約所涵蓋的任何犯罪的相互執法合作。締約國應在適當情況下充分利用各種協定或安排,包括國際或區域組織,以加強締約國執法機構之間的合作。
  3.締約國應努力在力所能及的範圍內開展合作,以便對借助現代技術實施的跨國有組織犯罪作出反應。

Article 27 Law enforcement cooperation


  1.States Parties shall cooperate closely with one another, consistent with their respective domestic legal and administrative systems, to enhance the effectiveness of law enforcement action to combat the offences covered by this Convention.Each State Party shall, in particular, adopt effective measures:
  (a) To enhance and, where necessary, to establish channels of communication between their competent authorities, agencies and services in order to facilitate the secure and rapid exchange of information concerning all aspects of the offences covered by this Convention, including, if the States Parties concerneddeem it appropriate, links with other criminal activities;
  (b) To cooperate with other States Parties in conducting inquiries with respect to offences covered by this Convention concerning:
  (i) The identity, whereabouts and activities of persons suspected of involvement in such offences or the location of other persons concerned;
  (ii) The movement of proceeds of crime or property derived from the commission of such offences;
  (iii) The movement of property, equipment or other instrumentalities used or intended for use in the commission of such offences;
  (c) To provide, when appropriate, necessary items or quantities of substancesfor analytical or investigative purposes;
  (d) To facilitate effective coordination between their competent authorities,agencies and services and to promote the exchange of personnel and other experts,including, subject to bilateral agreements or arrangements between the States Parties concerned, the posting of liaison officers;
  (e) To exchange information with other States Parties on specific means and methods used by organized criminal groups, including, where applicable, routes and conveyances and the use of false identities, altered or false docxuments or other means of concealing their activities;
  (f) To exchange information and coordinate administrative and other measures taken as appropriate for the purpose of early identification of the offences covered by this Convention.
  2.With a view to giving effect to this Convention, States Parties shall consider entering into bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements on direct cooperation between their law enforcement agencies and, where such agreements or arrangements already exist, amending them.In the absence of such agreements orarrangements between the States Parties concerned, the Parties may consider this Convention as the basis for mutual law enforcement cooperation in respect of the offences covered by this Convention.Whenever appropriate, States Parties shall make full use of agreements or arrangements, including international or regional organizations, to enhance the cooperation between their law enforcement agencies.
  3.States Parties shall endeavour to cooperate within their means to respond to transnational organized crime committed through the use of modern technology.

第28條 收集、交流和分析關於有組織犯罪的性質的資料


  1.各締約國均應考慮在同科技和學術界協商的情況下,分析其領域內的有組織犯罪的趨勢、活動環境以及所涉及的專業團體和技術。
  2.締約國應考慮相互並通過國際和區域組織研究和分享與有組織犯罪活動有關的分析性專門知識。為此目的,應酌情制定和適用共同的定義、標準和方法。
  3.各締約國均應考慮對其打擊有組織犯罪的政策和實際措施進行監測,並對這些政策和措施的有效性和效果進行評估。

Article 28 Collection, exchange and analysis of information on the nature of organized crime


  1.Each State Party shall consider analysing, in consultation with the scientific and academic communities, trends in organized crime in its territory, the circumstances in which organized crime operates, as well as the professional groups and technologies involved.
  2.States Parties shall consider developing and sharing analytical expertise concerning organized criminal activities with each other and through international and regional organizations.For that purpose, common definitions, standards and methodologies should be developed and applied as appropriate.
  3.Each State Party shall consider monitoring its policies and actual measures to combat organized crime and making assessments of their effectiveness and efficiency.

第29條 培訓和技術援助


  1.各締約國均應在必要時為其執法人員,包括檢察官、進行調查的法官和海關人員及其他負責預防、偵查和控制本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的人員開展、擬訂或改進具體的培訓方案。這類方案可包括人員借調和交流。這類方案應在本國法律所允許的範圍內特別針對以下方面:
  (a)預防、偵查和控制本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的方法;
  (b)涉嫌參與本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的人所使用的路線和手段,包括在過境國使用的路線和手段,以及適當的對策;
  (c)對違禁品走向的監測;
  (d)偵查和監測犯罪所得、財產、設備或其他工具的去向和用於轉移、隱瞞或掩飾此種犯罪所得、財產、設備或其他工具的手法,以及用以打擊洗錢和其他金融犯罪的方法;
  (e)收集證據;
  (f)自由貿易區和自由港中的控制手段;
  (g)現代化執法設備和技術,包括電子監視、控制下交付和特工行動;
  (h)打擊借助於計算機、電信網路或其他形式現代技術所實施的跨國有組織犯罪的方法;
  (i)保護被害人和證人的方法。
  2.締約國應相互協助,規劃並實施旨在分享本條第1款所提及領域專門知識的研究和培訓方案,並應為此目的酌情利用區域和國際會議和研討會,促進對共同關心的問題,包括過境國的特殊問題和需要的合作和討論。
  3.締約國應促進有助於引渡和司法協助的培訓和技術援助。這種培訓和技術援助可包括對中心當局或負有相關職責的機構的人員進行語言培訓、開展借調和交流。
  4.在有雙邊和多邊協定的情況下,締約國應加強必要的努力,在國際組織和區域組織的範圍內以及其他有關的雙邊和多邊協定或安排的範圍內,最大限度地開展業務及培訓活動。

Article 29 Training and technical assistance


  1.Each State Party shall, to the extent necessary, initiate, develop or improve specific training programmes for its law enforcement personnel, including prosecutors, investigating magistrates and customs personnel, and other personnel charged with the prevention, detection and control of the offences covered by this Convention.Such programmes may include secondments and exchanges of staff.Such programmes shall deal, in particular and to the extent permitted by domestic law, with the following:
  (a) Methods used in the prevention, detection and control of the offences covered by this Convention;
  (b) Routes and techniques used by persons suspected of involvement in offences covered by this Convention, including in transit States, and appropriate countermeasures;
  (c) Monitoring of the movement of contraband;
  (d) Detection and monitoring of the movements of proceeds of crime,property, equipment or other instrumentalities and methods used for the transfer,concealment or disguise of such proceeds, property, equipment or other instrumentalities, as well as methods used in combating money-laundering and other financial crimes;
  (e) Collection of evidence;
  (f) Control techniques in free trade zones and free ports;
  (g) Modern law enforcement equipment and techniques, including electronic surveillance, controlled deliveries and undercover operations;
  (h) Methods used in combating transnational organized crime committed through the use of computers, telecommunications networks or other forms of modern technology; and
  (i) Methods used in the protection of victims and witnesses.
  2.States Parties shall assist one another in planning and implementing research and training programmes designed to share expertise in the areas referred to in paragraph 1 of this article and to that end shall also, when appropriate, use regional and international conferences and seminars to promote cooperation and to stimulate discussion on problems of mutual concern, including the special problems and needs of transit States.
  3.States Parties shall promote training and technical assistance that will facilitate extradition and mutual legal assistance.Such training and technical assistance may include language training, secondments and exchanges between personnel in central authorities or agencies with relevant responsibilities.
  4.In the case of existing bilateral and multilateral agreements or arrangements, States Parties shall strengthen, to the extent necessary, efforts to maximize operational and training activities within international and regional organizations and within other relevant bilateral and multilateral agreements or arrangements.

第30條 其他措施:通過經濟發展和技術援助執行公約


  1.締約國應通過國際合作採取有助於最大限度優化本公約執行的措施,同時應考慮到有組織犯罪對社會,尤其是對可持續發展的消極影響。
  2.締約國應相互協調並同國際和區域組織協調,盡可能作出具體努力:
  (a)加強其同發展中國家在各級的合作,以提高發展中國家預防和打擊跨國有組織犯罪的能力;
  (b)加強財政和物質援助,支援發展中國家同跨國有組織犯罪作有效鬥爭的努力,並幫助它們順利執行本公約;
  (c)向發展中國家和經濟轉型期國家提供技術援助,以協助它們滿足在執行本公約方面的需要。為此,締約國應努力向聯合國籌資機制中為此目的專門指定的帳戶提供充分的經常性自願捐款。締約國還可根據其本國法律和本公約規定,特別考慮向上述帳戶捐出根據本公約規定沒收的犯罪所得或財產中一定比例的金錢或相應的價值;
  (d)根據本條規定視情況鼓勵和爭取其他國家和金融機構與其一道共同努力,特別是向發展中國家提供更多的培訓方案和現代化設備,以協助它們實現本公約的各項目標。
  3.這些措施應儘量不影響現有對外援助承諾或其他多邊、區域或國際一級的財政合作安排。
  4.締約國可締結關於物資和後勤援助的雙邊或多邊協議或安排,同時考慮到為使本公約所規定的國際合作方式行之有效和預防、偵查與控制跨國有組織犯罪所必需的各種財政安排。

Article 30 Other measures: implementation of the Convention through economic development and technical assistance


  1.States Parties shall take measures conducive to the optimal implementation of this Convention to the extent possible, through international cooperation, taking into account the negative effects of organized crime on society in general, in particular on sustainable development.
  2.States Parties shall make concrete efforts to the extent possible and in coordination with each other, as well as with international and regional organizations:
  (a) To enhance their cooperation at various levels with developing countries, with a view to strengthening the capacity of the latter to prevent and combat transnational organized crime;
  (b) To enhance financial and material assistance to support the efforts of developing countries to fight transnational organized crime effectively and to help them implement this Convention successfully;
  (c) To provide technical assistance to developing countries and countries with economies in transition to assist them in meeting their needs for the implementation of this Convention.To that end, States Parties shall endeavour to make adequate and regular voluntary contributions to an account specifically designated for that purpose in a United Nations funding mechanism.States Parties may also give special consideration, in accordance with their domestic law and the provisions of this Convention, to contributing to the aforementioned account a percentage of the money or of the corresponding value of proceeds of crime or property confiscated in accordance with the provisions of this Convention;
  (d) To encourage and persuade other States and financial institutions as appropriate to join them in efforts in accordance with this article, in particular by providing more training programmes and modern equipment to developing countries in order to assist them in achieving the objectives of this Convention.
  3.To the extent possible, these measures shall be without prejudice to existing foreign assistance commitments or to other financial cooperation arrangements at the bilateral, regional or international level.
  4.States Parties may conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements on material and logistical assistance, taking into consideration the financial arrangements necessary for the means of international cooperation provided for by this Convention to be effective and for the prevention, detection andcontrol of transnational organized crime.

第31條 預防


  1.締約國應努力開發和評估各種旨在預防跨國有組織犯罪的國家項目,並制訂和促進這方面的最佳做法和政策。
  2.締約國應根據其本國法律基本原則,利用適當的立法、行政或其他措施努力減少有組織犯罪集團在利用犯罪所得參與合法市場方面的現有或未來機會。這些措施應著重於:
  (a)加強執法機構或檢察官同包括企業界在內的有關私人實體之間的合作;
  (b)促進制定各種旨在維護公共和有關私人實體廉潔性的標準和程序,以及有關職業,特別是律師、公證人、稅務顧問和會計師的行為準則;
  (c)防止有組織犯罪集團對公共當局實行的招標程序以及公共當局為商業活動所提供的補貼和許可證作不正當利用;
  (d)防止有組織犯罪集團對法人作不正當利用,這類措施可包括:
  (一)建立關於法人的建立、管理和籌資中所涉法人和自然人的公共記錄;
  (二)宣佈有可能通過法院命令或任何適宜手段,在一段合理的期間內剝奪被判定犯有本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的人擔任在其管轄範圍內成立的法人的主管的資格;
  (三)建立關於被剝奪擔任法人主管資格的人的國家記錄;
  (四)與其他締約國主管當局交流本款(d)項(一)目和(三)目所述記錄中所載的資料。
  3.締約國應努力促進被判犯有本公約所涵蓋的犯罪的人重新融入社會。
  4.締約國應努力定期評價現有有關法律文書和行政管理辦法,以發現其中易被有組織犯罪集團作不正當利用之處。
  5.締約國應努力提高公眾對跨國有組織犯罪的存在、原因和嚴重性及其所構成的威脅的認識。可在適當情況下通過大眾傳播媒介傳播信息,其中應包括促進公眾參與預防和打擊這類犯罪的措施。
  6.各締約國均應將可協助其他締約國制訂預防跨國有組織犯罪的措施的一個或多個當局的名稱和地址通知聯合國秘書長。
  7.締約國應酌情彼此合作和同有關國際和區域組織合作,以促進和制訂本條所述措施,其辦法包括參與各種旨在預防跨國有組織犯罪的國際項目,例如改善環境,以使處於社會邊緣地位的群體不易受跨國有組織犯罪行動的影響。

Article 31 Prevention


  1.States Parties shall endeavour to develop and evaluate national projects and to establish and promote best practices and policies aimed at the prevention of transnational organized crime.
  2.States Parties shall endeavour, in accordance with fundamental principles of their domestic law, to reduce existing or future opportunities for organized criminal groups to participate in lawful markets with proceeds of crime, through appropriate legislative, administrative or other measures.These measures shouldfocus on:
  (a) The strengthening of cooperation between law enforcement agencies or prosecutors and relevant private entities, including industry;
  (b) The promotion of the development of standards and procedures designed to safeguard the integrity of public and relevant private entities, as well as codes of conduct for relevant professions, in particular lawyers, notaries public, tax consultants and accountants;
  (c) The prevention of the misuse by organized criminal groups of tender procedures conducted by public authorities and of subsidies and licences granted by public authorities for commercial activity;
  (d) The prevention of the misuse of legal persons by organized criminal groups; such measures could include:
  (i) The establishment of public records on legal and natural persons involved in the establishment, management and funding of legal persons;
  (ii) The introduction of the possibility of disqualifying by court order or any appropriate means for a reasonable period of time persons convicted ofoffences covered by this Convention from acting as directors of legal persons incorporated within their jurisdiction;
  (iii) The establishment of national records of persons disqualified from acting as directors of legal persons; and
  (iv) The exchange of information contained in the records referred to in subparagraphs (d) (i) and (iii) of this paragraph with the competent authorities of other States Parties.
  3.States Parties shall endeavour to promote the reintegration into society of persons convicted of offences covered by this Convention.
  4.States Parties shall endeavour to evaluate periodically existing relevant legal instruments and administrative practices with a view to detecting their vulnerability to misuse by organized criminal groups.
  5.States Parties shall endeavour to promote public awareness regarding the existence, causes and gravity of and the threat posed by transnational organized crime.Information may be disseminated where appropriate through the mass media and shall include measures to promote public participation in preventing and combating such crime.
  6.Each State Party shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the name and address of the authority or authorities that can assist other States Parties in developing measures to prevent transnational organized crime.
  7.States Parties shall, as appropriate, collaborate with each other and relevant international and regional organizations in promoting and developing the measures referred to in this article.This includes participation in international projects aimed at the prevention of transnational organized crime, for example by alleviating the circumstances that render socially marginalized groups vulnerable to the action of transnational organized crime.

第32條 公約締約方會議


  1.茲設立本公約締約方會議,以提高締約國打擊跨國有組織犯罪的能力,並促進和審查公約的實施。
  2.聯合國秘書長應在不晚於本公約生效之後一年的時間內召集締約方會議。締約方會議應通過議事規則和關於開展本條第3款和第4款所列活動的規則(包括關於支付這些活動費用的規則)。
  3.締約方會議應議定實現本條第1款所述各項目標的機制,其中包括:
  (a)促進締約國按照本公約第29條第30條第31條所開展的活動,其辦法包括鼓勵調動自願捐助;
  (b)促進締約國間交流關於跨國有組織犯罪的模式和趨勢以及同其作鬥爭的成功做法的信息;
  (c)同有關國際和區域組織和非政府組織開展合作;
  (d)定期審查本公約的執行情況;
  (e)為改進本公約及其實施而提出建議。
  4.為了本條第3款(d)項和(e)項的目的,締約方會議應通過締約國提供的資料和締約方會議可能建立的補充審查機制,對締約國為實施公約所採取的措施以及實施過程中所遇到的困難獲得必要的了解。
  5.各締約國均應按照締約方會議的要求,向其提供有關本國實施本公約的方案、計劃和做法以及立法和行政措施的資料。

Article 32 Conference of the Parties to the Convention


  1.A Conference of the Parties to the Convention is hereby established to improve the capacity of States Parties to combat transnational organized crime and to promote and review the implementation of this Convention.
  2.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the Conference of the Parties not later than one year following the entry into force of this Convention.The Conference of the Parties shall adopt rules of procedure and rules governing the activities set forth in paragraphs 3 and 4 of this article (including rules concerning payment of expenses incurred in carrying out those activities).
  3.The Conference of the Parties shall agree upon mechanisms for achieving the objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 of this article, including:
  (a) Facilitating activities by States Parties under articles 29, 30 and 31 of this Convention, including by encouraging the mobilization of voluntary contributions;
  (b) Facilitating the exchange of information among States Parties on patterns and trends in transnational organized crime and on successful practices forcombating it;
  (c) Cooperating with relevant international and regional organizations and non-governmental organizations;
  (d) Reviewing periodically the implementation of this Convention;
  (e) Making recommendations to improve this Convention and itsimplementation.
  4.For the purpose of paragraphs 3 (d) and (e) of this article, the Conference of the Parties shall acquire the necessary knowledge of the measures taken by States Parties in implementing this Convention and the difficulties encountered by them in doing so through information provided by them and through such supplemental review mechanisms as may be established by the Conference of the Parties.
  5.Each State Party shall provide the Conference of the Parties with information on its programmes, plans and practices, as well as legislative and administrative measures to implement this Convention, as required by the Conference of the Parties.

第33條 秘書處


  1.聯合國秘書長應為公約締約方會議提供必要的秘書處服務。
  2.秘書處應:
  (a)協助締約方會議開展本公約第32條所列各項活動,並為各屆締約方會議作出安排和提供必要的服務;
  (b)依請求協助締約國向締約方會議提交本公約第32條第5款提及的資料;
  (c)確保與其他有關國際和區域組織秘書處的必要協調。

Article 33 Secretariat


  1.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary secretariat services to the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
  2.The secretariat shall:
  (a) Assist the Conference of the Parties in carrying out the activities set forth in article 32 of this Convention and make arrangements and provide the necessary services for the sessions of the Conference of the Parties;
  (b) Upon request, assist States Parties in providing information to the Conference of the Parties as envisaged in article 32, paragraph 5, of this Convention; and
  (c) Ensure the necessary coordination with the secretariats of relevant international and regional organizations.

第34條 公約的實施


  1.各締約國均應根據其本國法律制度基本原則採取必要的措施,包括立法和行政措施,以切實履行其根據本公約所承擔的義務。
  2.各締約國均應在本國法律中將根據本公約第5條第6條第8條第23條確立的犯罪規定為犯罪,而不論其是否如本公約第3條第1款所述具有跨國性或是否涉及有組織犯罪集團,但本公約第5條要求涉及有組織犯罪集團的情況除外。
  3.為預防和打擊跨國有組織犯罪,各締約國均可採取比本公約的規定更為嚴格或嚴厲的措施。

Article 34 Implementation of the Convention


  1.Each State Party shall take the necessary measures, including legislative and administrative measures, in accordance with fundamental principles of its domestic law, to ensure the implementation of its obligations under this Convention.
  2.The offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention shall be established in the domestic law of each State Party independently of the transnational nature or the involvement of an organized criminal group as described in article 3, paragraph 1, of this Convention, except to the extent that article 5 of this Convention would require the involvement of an organized criminal group.
  3.Each State Party may adopt more strict or severe measures than those provided for by this Convention for preventing and combating transnational organized crime.

第35條 爭端的解決


  1.締約國應努力通過談判解決與本公約的解釋或適用有關的爭端。
  2.兩個或兩個以上締約國對於本公約的解釋或適用發生任何爭端,在合理時間內不能通過談判解決的,應按其中一方請求交付仲裁。如果自請求交付仲裁之日起六個月後這些締約國不能就仲裁安排達成協議,則其中任何一方均可根據《國際法院規約》請求將爭端提交國際法院。
  3.各締約國在簽署、批准、接受、核准或加入本公約時,均可聲明不受本條第2款的約束。其他締約國對於作出此種保留的任何締約國,不應受本條第2款的約束。
  4.凡根據本條第3款作出保留的締約國,均可隨時通知聯合國秘書長撤銷該項保留。

Article 35 Settlement of disputes


  l.States Parties shall endeavour to settle disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention through negotiation.
  2.Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention that cannot be settled through negotiation within a reasonable time shall, at the request of one of those States Parties, be submitted to arbitration.If, six months after the date of the request for arbitration, those States Parties are unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration, any one of those States Parties may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice by request in accordance with the Statute of the Court.
  3.Each State Party may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention, declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of this article.The other States Parties shall not be bound by paragraph 2 of this article with respect to any State Party that has made such a reservation.
  4.Any State Party that has made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may at any time withdraw that reservation by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

第36條 簽署、批准、接受、核准和加入


  1.本公約自2000年12月12日至15日在義大利巴勒莫開放供各國簽署,隨後直至2002年12月12日在紐約聯合國總部開放供各國簽署。
  2.本公約還應開放供區域經濟一體化組織簽署,條件是該組織至少有一個成員國已按照本條第1款規定簽署本公約。
  3.本公約須經批准、接受或核准。批准書、接受書或核准書應交存聯合國秘書長。如果某一區域經濟一體化組織至少有一個成員國已交存批准書、接受書或核准書,該組織可照樣辦理。該組織應在該項批准書、接受書或核准書中宣佈其在本公約管轄事項方面的權限範圍。該組織還應將其權限範圍的任何有關變動情況通知保存人。
  4.任何國家或任何至少已有一個成員國加入本公約的區域經濟一體化組織均可加入本公約。加入書應交存聯合國秘書長。區域經濟一體化組織加入本公約時應宣佈其在本公約管轄事項方面的權限範圍。該組織還應將其權限範圍的任何有關變動情況通知保存人。

Article 36 Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval and accession


  1.This Convention shall be open to all States for signature from 12 to 15 December 2000 in Palermo, Italy, and thereafter at United Nations Headquarters in New York until 12 December 2002.
  2.This Convention shall also be open for signature by regional economic integration organizations provided that at least one member State of such organization has signed this Convention in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article.
  3.This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval.Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.A regional economic integration organization may deposit its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval if at least one of its member States has done likewise.In that instrument of ratification,acceptance or approval, such organization shall declare the extent of its competence with respect to the matters governed by this Convention.Such organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in the extent of its competence.
  4.This Convention is open for accession by any State or any regional economic integration organization of which at least one member State is a Party to this Convention.Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.At the time of its accession, a regional economic integration organization shall declare the extent of its competence with respect to matters governed by this Convention.Such organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in the extent of its competence.

第37條 同議定書的關係


  1.本公約可由一項或多項議定書予以補充。
  2.只有成為本公約締約方的國家或區域經濟一體化組織方可成為議定書締約方。
  3.本公約締約方不受議定書約束,除非其已根據議定書規定成為議定書締約方。
  4.本公約的任何議定書均應結合本公約予以解釋,並考慮到該議定書的宗旨。

Article 37 Relation with protocols


  1.This Convention may be supplemented by one or more protocols.
  2.In order to become a Party to a protocol, a State or a regional economic integration organization must also be a Party to this Convention.
  3.A State Party to this Convention is not bound by a protocol unless it becomes a Party to the protocol in accordance with the provisions thereof.
  4.Any protocol to this Convention shall be interpreted together with this Convention, taking into account the purpose of that protocol.

第38條 生效


  1.本公約應自第四十份批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書交存聯合國秘書長之日後第九十天起生效。為本款的目的,區域經濟一體化組織交存的任何文書均不得在該組織成員國所交存文書以外另行計算。
  2.對於在第四十份批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書交存後批准、接受、核准或加入公約的國家或區域經濟一體化組織,本公約應自該國或組織交存有關文書之日後第三十天起生效。

Article 38 Entry into force


  1.This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fortieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.For the purpose of this paragraph, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of such organization.
  2.For each State or regional economic integration organization ratifying,accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the fortieth instrument of such action, this Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or organization of the relevant instrument.

第39條 修正


  1.締約國可在本公約生效已滿五年後提出修正案並將其送交聯合國秘書長。秘書長應立即將所提修正案轉發締約國和締約方會議,以進行審議並作出決定。締約方會議應盡力就每項修正案達成協商一致。如果已為達成協商一致作出一切努力而仍未達成一致意見,作為最後手段,該修正案須有出席締約方會議並參加表決的締約國的三分之二多數票方可通過。
  2.區域經濟一體化組織對屬於其權限的事項依本條行使表決權時,其票數相當於其作為本公約締約國的成員國數目。如果這些組織的成員國行使表決權,則這些組織便不得行使表決權,反之亦然。
  3.根據本條第1款通過的修正案,須經締約國批准、接受或核准。
  4.根據本條第1款通過的修正案,應自締約國向聯合國秘書長交存一份批准、接受或核准該修正案的文書之日起九十天之後對該締約國生效。
  5.修正案一經生效,即對已表示同意受其約束的締約國具有約束力。其他締約國則仍受本公約原條款和其以前批准、接受或核准的任何修正案的約束。

Article 39 Amendment


  1.After the expiry of five years from the entry into force of this Convention, a State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to the States Parties and to the Conference of the Parties to the Convention for the purpose of considering and deciding on the proposal.The Conference of the Parties shall make every effort to achieve consensus on each amendment.If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted and no agreement has been reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort, require for its adoption a twothirds majority vote of the States Parties present and voting at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
  2.Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote under this article with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Convention.Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if their member States exercise theirs and vice versa.
  3.An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States Parties.
  4.An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article shall enter into force in respect of a State Party ninety days after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of such amendment.
  5.When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those States Parties which have expressed their consent to be bound by it.Other States Parties shall still be bound by the provisions of this Convention and any earlier amendments that they have ratified, accepted or approved.

第40條 退約


  1.締約國可書面通知聯合國秘書長退出本公約。此項退約應自秘書長收到上述通知之日起一年後生效。
  2.區域經濟一體化組織在其所有成員國均已退出本公約時即不再為本公約締約方。
  3.根據本條第1款規定退出本公約,即自然退出其任何議定書。

Article 40 Denunciation


  1.A State Party may denounce this Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.Such denunciation shall become effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.
  2.A regional economic integration organization shall cease to be a Party to this Convention when all of its member States have denounced it.
  3.Denunciation of this Convention in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article shall entail the denunciation of any protocols thereto.

第41條 保存人和語文


  1.聯合國秘書長應為本公約指定保存人。
  2.本公約原件應交存聯合國秘書長,公約的阿拉伯文、中文、英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文文本同為作準文本。
  茲由經各自政府正式授權的下列署名全權代表簽署本公約,以昭信守。

Article 41 Depositary and languages


  1.The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated depositary of this Convention.
  2.The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English,French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.


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