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【名稱】


《聯合國老人綱領》

 (United Nations Principles for Older Persons)

 
【發布單位】聯合國大會
【生效日期】1991年12月16日第46/91號決議通過大會


【內容】

  聯合國大會一九九一年十二月十六日第46/91號決議通過大會,讚賞老年人對其社會所作的貢獻,確認在《聯合國憲章》中,聯合國人民除其他外,宣佈其決心重申基本人權,人格尊嚴與價值,以及男女與大小各國平等權利之信念,並促成大自由中之社會進步及較善之民生,注意到在《世界人權宣言》、《經濟社會文化權利國際公約》和《公民與政治權利國際公約》以及其他宣言中對這些權利作了詳細的闡述,以確保對特定群體適用普遍標準,根據老齡問題世界大會通過並由大會1982 年12 月3 日第37/51號決議核准的《老齡問題國際行動計畫》,認識到老年人的處境不但國與國之間有極大的差異,而且在各國國內及個人之間也大不相同,需要有多種政策回應,意識到在所有國家內,老年人的人數不斷增加,而且健康狀況比以往更好,意識到科學研究已否定了許多年老必衰、每況愈下的陳舊觀念,深信在老年人數目和比例日增的世界,必須提供機會,讓有意願有能力的老年人參加社會日常活動並且做出貢獻,念及在發達國家和發展中國家,家庭生活的壓力需要對那些照顧體弱老年人的人給予支助,銘記由《老齡問題國際行動計畫》以及國際勞工組織、世界衛生組織和其他聯合國實體通過的公約、建議和決議所已確定的標準,鼓勵各國政府盡可能將下列原則納入本國國家方案,
  Adopted by General Assembly resolution 46/91 of 16 December 1991 The General Assembly ,
  Appreciating the contribution that older persons make to their societies,
  Recognizing that, in the Charter of the United Nations, the peoples of the United Nations declare, inter alia , their determination to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
  Noting the elaboration of those rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other declarations to ensure the application of universal standards to particular groups,
  In pursuance of the International Plan of Action on Ageing, adopted by the World Assembly on Ageing and endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 37/51 of 3 December 1982,
  Appreciating the tremendous diversity in the situation of older persons, not only between countries but within countries and between individuals, which requires a variety of policy responses,
  Aware that in all countries, individuals are reaching an advanced age in greater numbers and in better health than ever before,
  Aware of the scientific research disproving many stereotypes about inevitable and irreversible declines with age,
  Convinced that in a world characterized by an increasing number and proportion of older persons, opportunities must be provided for willing and capable older persons to participate in and contribute to the ongoing activities of society,
  Mindful that the strains on family life in both developed and developing countries require support for those providing care to frail older persons,
  Bearing in mind the standards already set by the International Plan of Action on Ageing and the conventions, recommendations and resolutions of the International Labour Organization, the World Health Organization and other United Nations entities,
  Encourages Governments to incorporate the following principles into their national programmes whenever possible:

獨立


  1.老年人應能通過提供收入、家庭和社會支助以及自助,享有足夠的食物、水、住房、衣著和保健。
  2.老年人應有工作機會或其他創造收入機會。
  3.老年人應能參與決定退出勞動力隊伍的時間和節奏。
  4.老年人應能參加適當的教育和培訓方案。
  5.老年人應能生活在安全且適合個人選擇和能力變化的環境。
  6.老年人應能盡可能長期在家居住。

Independence


  1.Older persons should have access to adequate food, water, shelter, clothing and health care through the provision of income, family and community support and self-help.
  2.Older persons should have the opportunity to work or to have access to other income-generating opportunities.
  3.Older persons should be able to participate in determining when and at what pace withdrawal from the labour force takes place.
  4.Older persons should have access to appropriate educational and training programmes.
  5.Older persons should be able to live in environments that are safe and adaptable to personal preferences and changing capacities.
  6.Older persons should be able to reside at home for as long as possible.

參與


  7.老年人應始終融合於社會,積極參與制定和執行直接影響其福祉的政策,並將其知識和技能傳給子孫後輩。
  8.老年人應能尋求和發展為社會服務的機會,並以志願工作者身份擔任與其興趣和能力相稱的職務。
  9.老年人應能組織老年人運動或協會。

Participation


  7.Older persons should remain integrated in society, participate actively in the formulation and implementation of policies that directly affect their well-being and share their knowledge and skills with younger generations.
  8.Older persons should be able to seek and develop opportunities for service to the community and to serve as volunteers in positions appropriate to their interests and capabilities.
  9.Older persons should be able to form movements or associations of older persons.

照顧


  10.老年人應按照每個社會的文化價值體系,享有家庭和社區的照顧和保護。
  11.老年人應享有保健服務,以説明他們保持或恢復身體、智力和情緒的最佳水準並預防或延緩疾病的發生。
  12.老年人應享有各種社會和法律服務,以提高其自主能力並使他們得到更好的保護和照顧。
  13.老年人應能利用適當程度的安養院照顧,使他們在人道且安定的環境中得到保護、康復以及社會和精神上的激勵。
  14.老年人居住在任何住所,安養院或治療所時,均應能享有人權和基本自由,包括充分尊重他們的尊嚴、信仰、需要和隱私,並尊重他們對自己的照顧和生活品質做決擇的權利。

Care


  10.Older persons should benefit from family and community care and protection in accordance with each society's system of cultural values.
  11.Older persons should have access to health care to help them to maintain or regain the optimum level of physical, mental and emotional well-being and to prevent or delay the onset of illness.
  12.Older persons should have access to social and legal services to enhance their autonomy, protection and care.
  13.Older persons should be able to utilize appropriate levels of institutional care providing protection, rehabilitation and social and mental stimulation in a humane and secure environment.
  14.Older persons should be able to enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms when residing in any shelter, care or treatment facility, including full respect for their dignity, beliefs, needs and privacy and for the right to make decisions about their care and the quality of their lives.

自我充實


  15.老年人應能追尋充分發揮自己潛力的機會。
  16.老年人應能享用社會的教育、文化、精神和文娛資源。
  尊 嚴
  17.老年人的生活應有尊嚴,有保障,且不受剝削和身心虐待。
  18.老年人不論其年齡、性別、種族或族裔背景、殘疾或其他狀況,均應受到公平對待,而且不論其經濟貢獻大小均應受到尊重。

Self-fulfilment


  15.Older persons should be able to pursue opportunities for the full development of their potential.
  16.Older persons should have access to the educational, cultural, spiritual and recreational resources of society.Dignity
  17.Older persons should be able to live in dignity and security and be free of exploitation and physical or mental abuse.
  18.Older persons should be treated fairly regardless of age, gender, racial or ethnic background, disability or other status, and be valued independently of their economic contribution.


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