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【名稱】 相關題庫1〉〉相關題庫2〉〉


《與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定》

(Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights,TRIPS)

【法規沿革】
1996年1月1日開始生效

【章節索引】
第一篇 一般規定及基本原則 §1
第二篇 智慧財產權有效性、範圍以及使用標準 
》1.著作權及相關權利 §9
》2.商標 §15
》3.產地標示 §22
》4.工業設計 §25
》5.專利 §27
》6.積體電路之電路布局 §35
》7.未公開資料之保護 §39
》8.與契約授權有關之反競爭行為之防制 §40
第三篇 智慧財產權之執行
》1.一般義務 §41
》2.民事與行政程序及救濟 §42
》3.暫時性措施 §50
》4.與邊界措施有關之特殊規定 §51
》5.刑事程序 §61
第四篇 智慧財產權之取得與維持及相關之當事人間程序 §62
第五篇 爭端之預防及解決 §63
第六篇 過渡性措施 §65
第七篇 機構安排;最終條款 §68

 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part I: General Provisions and Basic Principles
Part II: Standards Concerning the Availability, Scope and Use of Intellectual Property Rights
1.Copyright and Related Rights
2.Trademarks
3.Geographical Indications
4.Industrial Designs
5.Patents
6.Layout-Designs(Topographies)of Integrated Circuits
7.Protection of Undisclosed Information
8.Control of Anti-Competitive Practices in Contractual Licences
Part III: Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights
1.General Obligations
2.Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies
3.Provisional Measures
4.Special Requirements Related to Border Measures
5.Criminal Procedures
Part IV: Acquisition and Maintenance of Intellectual Property Rights and Related Inter-Partes Procedures
Part V: Dispute Prevention and Settlement
Part VI: Transitional Arrangements
Part VII: Institutional Arrangements; Final Provisions

【內容】

第一篇:一般規定及基本原則

  會員咸欲減少國際貿易之扭曲與障礙,顧及對智慧財產權之有效及適當保護之必要性,並確保執行智慧財產權之措施及程序,使之不成為合法貿易之障礙;咸認有制定下列相關之新規則與規律之必要性:
  GATT 1994基本原則以及相關國際智慧財產權協定及公約之適用性;
  TRIPS的有效性、範圍暨使用之適當標準及原則性規定;
  TRIPS的有效暨適當執行方法,但須考量各國法律制度之差異;
  政府間多邊預防及解決爭端之有效及迅速程序規定;及過渡性協定以促使充分參與談判之結果。咸認為因應仿冒品國際貿易,有必要制定多邊架構之原則、規定及規律;咸認智慧財產權係屬私權;咸認智慧財產權保護,包括發展及技術目標,係一國之政策目標;咸認低度開發國家會員於執行國內法律及規則時,應有最大彈性之特殊需求,俾有助建立良好及可行之技術基礎;強調藉達成有力承諾,以透過多邊程序解決與貿易有關智慧財產權問題之糾紛,減少緊張之重要性;亟願建立世界貿易組織、世界智慧財產權保護組織以及其他相關國際組織間之互助關係,茲同意如下:
  Members,
  Desiring to reduce distortions and impediments to international trade, and taking into account the need to promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights, and to ensure that measures and procedures to enforce intellectual property rights do not themselves become barriers to legitimate trade;
  Recognizing, to this end, the need for new rules and disciplines concerning:
  (a)the applicability of the basic principles of the GATT 1994 and of relevant international intellectual property agreements or conventions;
  (b)the provision of adequate standards and principles concerning the availability, scope and use of trade-related intellectual property rights;
  (c)the provision of effective and appropriate means for the enforcement of trade-related intellectual property rights, taking into account differences in national legal systems;
  (d)the provision of effective and expeditious procedures for the multilateral prevention and settlement of disputes between governments; and
  (e)transitional arrangements aiming at the fullest participation in the results of the negotiations;
  Recognizing the need for a multilateral framework of principles, rules and disciplines dealing with international trade in counterfeit goods;
  Recognizing that intellectual property rights are private rights;
  Recognizing the underlying public policy objectives of national systems for the protection of intellectual property, including developmental and technological objectives;
  Recognizing also the special needs of the least-developed country Members in respect of maximum flexibility in the domestic implementation of laws and regulations in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological base;
  Emphasizing the importance of reducing tensions by reaching strengthened commitments to resolve disputes on trade-related intellectual property issues through multilateral procedures;
  Desiring to establish a mutually supportive relationship between the WTO and the World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO)as well as other relevant international organisations;
  Hereby agree as follows:

回索引〉〉

第1條 義務之性質及範圍


  1.會員應實施本協定之規定。會員得提供較本協定規定更廣泛之保護,但不得抵觸本協定。會員得於其本身法律體制及程序之內,決定履行本協定之適當方式。
  2.本協定所稱「智慧財產」係指第二篇第一節至第七節所保護之各類智慧財產。
  3.會員應將本協定規定之待遇給予其他會員之國民。就相關之智慧財產權而言,所謂其他會員之國民,係指自然人或法人,並符合(一九六七年)巴黎公約、(一九七一年)伯恩公約羅馬公約及積體電路智慧財產權條約規定之保護要件標的者(設若全體世界貿易組織會員為前述公約之會員)。任何會員援引羅馬公約第五條第三項或第六條第二項規定者, 應依該規定通知與貿易有關之智慧財產權理事會。

Article 1 Nature and Scope of Obligations


  1.Members shall give effect to the provisions of this Agreement.Members may, but shall not be obliged to, implement in their domestic law more extensive protection than is required by this Agreement, provided that such protection does not contravene the provisions of this Agreement.Members shall be free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of this Agreement within their own legal system and practice.
  2.For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "intellectual property" refers to all categories of intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 to 7 of Part II.
  3.Members shall accord the treatment provided for in this Agreement to the nationals of other Members.1 In respect of the relevant intellectual property right, the nationals of other Members shall be understood as those natural or legal persons that would meet the criteria for eligibility for protection provided for in the Paris Convention(1967), the Berne Convention(1971), the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits, were all Members of the WTO members of those conventions.S2 Any Member availing itself of the possibilities provided in paragraph 3 of Article 5 or paragraph 2 of Article 6 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions to the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

第2條 智慧財產權公約


  1.就本協定第篇而言,會員應遵守(一九六七年)巴黎公約之第一條至第十二條及第十九條之規定。
  2.本協定第一篇至第四篇之規定,並不免除會員依巴黎公約伯恩公約羅馬公約及積體電路智慧財產權條約應盡之既存義務。

Article 2 Intellectual Property Conventions


  1.In respect of Parts II, III and IV of this Agreement, Members shall comply with Articles 1-12 and 19 of the Paris Convention(1967).
  2.Nothing in Parts I to IV of this Agreement shall derogate from existing obligations that Members may have to each other under the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits.

第3條 國民待遇


  1.除(一九六七年)巴黎公約、(一九七一年)伯恩公約羅馬公約及積體電路智慧財產權條約所定之例外規定外,就智慧財產權保護而言,每一會員給予其他會員國民之待遇不得 低於其給予本國國民之待遇;對表演人、錄音物製作人及廣播機構而言,本項義務僅及於 依本協定規定之權利。任何會員於援引伯恩公約第六條及羅馬公約第十六條第一項(b)款規定時,均應依各該條規定通知與貿易有關之智慧財產權理事會。
  2.會員就其司法及行政程序,包括送達地點之指定及會員境內代理人之委任,為確保法令之遵守,而該等法令未與本協定各條規定抵觸,且其施行未對貿易構成隱藏性之限制者,得援用第一項例外規定。

Article 3 National Treatment


  1.Each Member shall accord to the nationals of other Members treatment no less favourable than that it accords to its own nationals with regard to the protection3 of intellectual property, subject to the exceptions already provided in, respectively, the Paris Convention(1967), the Berne Convention(1971), the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits.In respect of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations, this obligation only applies in respect of the rights provided under this Agreement.Any Member availing itself of the possibilities provided in Article 6 of the Berne Convention and paragraph 1(b)of Article 16 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions to the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.
  2.Members may avail themselves of the exceptions permitted under paragraph 1 above in relation to judicial and administrative procedures, including the designation of an address for service or the appointment of an agent within the jurisdiction of a Member, only where such exceptions are necessary to secure compliance with laws and regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement and where such practices are not applied in a manner which would constitute a disguised restriction on trade.

第4條 最惠國待遇


  關於智慧財產保護而言,一會員給予任一其他國家國民之任何利益、優惠、特權或豁免權,應立即且無條件給予所有其他會員國民,但其利益、優惠、特權或豁免權有下列情形之一者,免 除本義務:
  (a)衍自一般性之司法協助或法律執行,而非侷限於智慧財產權之國際協定;
  (b)依據(一九七一年)伯恩公約羅馬公約之規定,所容許以另一國家所給予之待遇為準而 授予,而非由於國民待遇之功能而授予者;
  (c)關於本協定所未規定之表演人、錄音物製作人及廣播機構之權利者;
  (d)衍自較世界貿易組織協定更早生效之關於智慧財產保護之國際協定者;惟此項協定須通知 與貿易有關之智慧財產權理事會,且不得對其他會員之國民構成任意或不正當之歧視。

Article 4 Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment


  With regard to the protection of intellectual property, any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by a Member to the nationals of any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to the nationals of all other Members.Exempted from this obligation are any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity accorded by a Member:
  (a)deriving from international agreements on judicial assistance and law enforcement of a general nature and not particularly confined to the protection of intellectual property;
  (b)granted in accordance with the provisions of the Berne Convention(1971)or the Rome Convention authorizing that the treatment accorded be a function not of national treatment but of the treatment accorded in another country;
  (c)in respect of the rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations not provided under this Agreement;
  (d)deriving from international agreements related to the protection of intellectual property which entered into force prior to the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO, provided that such agreements are notified to the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and do not constitute an arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination against nationals of other Members.

第5條 取得或維持保護之多邊協定


  第三條第四條規定之義務,對於在世界智慧財產權組織監督下所締結關於智慧財產權取得或維持之多邊協定所規定之程序,不適用之。

Article 5 Multilateral Agreements on Acquisition or Maintenance of Protection


  The obligations under Articles 3 and 4 above do not apply to procedures provided in multilateral agreements concluded under the auspices of the World Intellectual Property Organization relating to the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights.

第6條 耗盡


  就本協定爭端解決之目的而言,且受第三條第四條規定之限制,本協定不得被用以處理智慧財產權耗盡之問題。

Article 6 Exhaustion


  For the purposes of dispute settlement under this Agreement, subject to the provisions of Articles 3 and 4 above nothing in this Agreement shall be used to address the issue of the exhaustion of intellectual property rights.

第7條 宗旨


  慧財產權之保護及執行必須有助於技術發明之提昇、技術之移轉與散播及技術知識之創造者與 使用者之相互利益,並有益於社會及經濟福祉,及權利與義務之平衡。

Article 7 Objectives


  The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations.

第8條 原則


  1.會員於訂定或修改其國內法律及規則時, 為保護公共衛生及營養,並促進對社會經濟及技 術發展特別重要產業之公共利益,得採行符合本協定規定之必要措施。
  2.會員承認,為防止智慧財產權權利人濫用其權利,或不合理限制貿易或對技術之國際移轉 有不利之影響,而採行符合本協定規定之適當措施者,可能有其

Article 8 Principles


  1.Members may, in formulating or amending their national laws and regulations, adopt measures necessary to protect public health and nutrition, and to promote the public interest in sectors of vital importance to their socio-economic and technological development, provided that such measures are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.
  2.Appropriate measures, provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement, may be needed to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology.

回索引〉〉

第二篇  智慧財產權之有效性、範圍暨使用  1.著作權及其相關權利

第9條 與伯恩公約之關係


  1.會員應遵守(一九七一年)伯恩公約第一條至第二十一條及附錄之規定。但會員依本協定所享有之權利及所負擔之義務不及於伯恩公約第六條之一之規定所賦予或衍生之權利。
  2.著作權之保護範圍僅及於表達,不及於觀念、程序、操作方法或數理概念等。

Article 9 Relation to Berne Convention


  1.Members shall comply with Articles 1-21 and the Appendix of the Berne Convention(1971).However, Members shall not have rights or obligations under this Agreement in respect of the rights conferred under Article 6bis of that Convention or of the rights derived therefrom.
  2.Copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such.

第10條 電腦程式及資料之編輯


  1.電腦程式,不論係原始碼或目的碼,均應以(一九七一年)伯恩公約所規定之文學著作保護之。
  2.資料或其他素材之編輯,不論係藉由機器認讀或其他形式,如其內容之選擇或編排構成智慧之創作者, 即應予保護。但該保護不及於資料或素材本身,且對該資料或素材本身之著 作權不生影響。

Article 10 Computer Programs and Compilations of Data


  1.Computer programs, whether in source or object code, shall be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention(1971).
  2.Compilations of data or other material, whether in machine readable or other form, which by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations shall be protected as such.Such protection, which shall not extend to the data or material itself, shall be without prejudice to any copyright subsisting in the data or material itself.

第11條 出租權


  會員至少在電腦程式及電影著作方面,應賦予著作人及其權利繼受人有授權或禁止將其著作原件或重製物對公眾商業性出租之權利。但在電影著作方面,除非此項出租導致該項著作在會員之國內廣遭重製,實質損害著作人及其權利繼受人之專有重製權外,會員得不受前揭義務之限制。就電腦程式而言,如電腦程式本身並非出租之主要標的者,則會員對該項出租,不須賦予出租權。

Article 11 Rental Rights


  In respect of at least computer programs and cinematographic works, a Member shall provide authors and their successors in title the right to authorize or to prohibit the commercial rental to the public of originals or copies of their copyright works.A Member shall be excepted from this obligation in respect of cinematographic works unless such rental has led to widespread copying of such works which is materially impairing the exclusive right of reproduction conferred in that Member on authors and their successors in title.In respect of computer programs, this obligation does not apply to rentals where the program itself is not the essential object of the rental.

第12條 保護期間


  著作之保護期間, 除攝影著作或應用美術著作以外,在不以自然人之生存期間為計算標準之情況下,應自授權公開發表之年底起算至少五十年,如著作完成後五十年內未授權公開發表者,應自創作完成之年底起算五十年。

Article 12 Term of Protection


  Whenever the term of protection of a work, other than a photographic work or a work of applied art, is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person, such term shall be no less than fifty years from the end of the calendar year of authorized publication, or, failing such authorised publication within fifty years from the making of the work, fifty years from the end of the calendar year of making.

第13條 限制及例外


  會員就專屬權所為限制或例外之規定,應以不違反著作之正常利用,且不至於不合理損害著作權人之合法權益之特殊情形為限。

Article 13 Limitations and Exceptions


  Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.

第14條 對表演人、錄音物製作人及廣播機構之保護


  1.關於附著於錄音物上之表演,表演人應可防止下列未經授權之行為:將其未附著於媒介物之表演予以附著及重製此一附著物。表演人亦應可防止下列未經其授權之行為:以無線電方式播送其現場表演及向公眾傳達該表演。
  2.錄音物製作人享有授權或禁止將其錄音物直接或間接重製之權利。
  3.廣播機構應有權利禁止下列未經其授權之行為:將廣播加以附著、將廣播附著物加以重製,將廣播以無線電再公開播送,及將播出之電視節目再向公眾傳達。會員未賦予廣播機構 前揭權利者,應依(一九七一年)伯恩公約之規定,賦予所廣播之著作之著作權人得防止上述行為之可能性。
  4.第十一條關於電腦程式之規定,對於依會員之國內法所規定之錄音物製作人或該錄音物之其他權利人,準用之。但會員於一九九四年四月十五日,對錄音物權利人就錄音物之出租已實施合理之報酬制度,且該錄音物之商業性出租不至於對權利人之專有重製權構成實質 損害者,得維持該制度。
  5.本協定對表演人及錄音物製作人之保護期限為:自附著完成或演出之當年年底起算至少五十年。依第三項所給予之保護期限,為自播送之當年年底起算至少二十年。
  6.任何會員,對於第一項至第三項規定之權利,於羅馬公約允許之範圍內,得訂定權利之條件、限制、例外規定及保留條款。但(一九七一年)伯恩公約第十八條規定,對於表演人及錄音物製作人之權利,準用之。

Article 14 Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms(Sound Recordings)and Broadcasting Organizations


  1.In respect of a fixation of their performance on a phonogram, performers shall have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation of their unfixed performance and the reproduction of such fixation.Performers shall also have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the broadcasting by wireless means and the communication to the public of their live performance.
  2.Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms.
  3.Broadcasting organizations shall have the right to prohibit the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation, the reproduction of fixations, and the rebroadcasting by wireless means of broadcasts, as well as the communication to the public of television broadcasts of the same.Where Members do not grant such rights to broadcasting organizations, they shall provide owners of copyright in the subject matter of broadcasts with the possibility of preventing the above acts, subject to the provisions of the Berne Convention(1971).
  4.The provisions of Article 11 in respect of computer programs shall apply mutatis mutandis to producers of phonograms and any other right holders in phonograms as determined in domestic law.If, on the date of the Ministerial Meeting concluding the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, a Member has in force a system of equitable remuneration of right holders in respect of the rental of phonograms, it may maintain such system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders.
  5.The term of the protection available under this Agreement to performers and producers of phonograms shall last at least until the end of a period of fifty years computed from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation was made or the performance took place.The term of protection granted pursuant to paragraph 3 above shall last for at least twenty years from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast took place.
  6.Any Member may, in relation to the rights conferred under paragraphs 1-3 above, provide for conditions, limitations, exceptions and reservations to the extent permitted by the Rome Convention.However, the provisions of Article 18 of the Berne Convention(1971)shall also apply, mutatis mutandis, to the rights of performers and producers of phonograms in phonograms.

回索引〉〉

第二篇  智慧財產權之有效性、範圍暨使用  2.商標

第15條 保護客體


  1.任何足以區別不同企業之商品或服務之任何標識或任何標識之組合,應足以構成商標。此類標識,以特定文字,包括個人姓名、字母、數字、圖形和顏色之組合,及此類標識之任何聯合式,應得註冊為商標。當標識本身不足以區別相關之商品或服務時,會員得基於 其使用而產生之顯著性而准其註冊。會員得規定,以視覺上可認知者作為註冊之要件。
  2.前項規定,並不限制會員以其他理由核駁商標註冊之申請。但以不違反(一九六七年)巴黎公約相關條文為限。
  3.會員得以使用作為商標註冊要件,但商標之實際使用不得作為提出申請註冊之要件。亦不得僅因其預期之使用未於申請提出後三年內實施而駁回其申請。
  4.商標所指定使用之商品或服務之性質,不得構成不准商標註冊之事由。
  5.會員應於註冊前或註冊後立即公告每件註冊之商標,並應提供申請撤銷該註冊之合理機會。會員亦得提供對商標註冊提出異議之機會。

Article 15 Protectable Subject Matter


  1.Any sign, or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings, shall be capable of constituting a trademark.Such signs, in particular words including personal names, letters, numerals, figurative elements and combinations of colours as well as any combination of such signs, shall be eligible for registration as trademarks.Where signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing the relevant goods or services, Members may make registrability depend on distinctiveness acquired through use.Members may require, as a condition of registration, that signs be visually perceptible.
  2.Paragraph 1 above shall not be understood to prevent a Member from denying registration of a trademark on other grounds, provided that they do not derogate from the provisions of the Paris Convention(1967).
  3.Members may make registrability depend on use.However, actual use of a trademark shall not be a condition for filing an application for registration.An application shall not be refused solely on the ground that intended use has not taken place before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of application.
  4.The nature of the goods or services to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an obstacle to registration of the trademark.
  5.Members shall publish each trademark either before it is registered or promptly after it is registered and shall afford a reasonable opportunity for petitions to cancel the registration.In addition, Members may afford an opportunity for the registration of a trademark to be opposed.

第16條 商標專用權


  1.註冊商標之專用權人應享有專用權,以阻止他人未獲其同意,於商業交易中使用相同或近似之商標於同一或類似之商品或服務,而其使用有致混淆之虞者。凡使用相同標識於相同商品或服務者,推定有混淆之虞。前揭權利不得損及任何既存之權利,亦不得影響會員基 於使用而賦予權利之可能性。
  2.(一九六七年)巴黎公約第六條之二之規定準用於服務。決定某一商標是否為著名商標,會員應考慮該商標在相關行業之知名度,包括對該商標促銷而在相關會員間形成之知名度。
  3.(一九六七年)巴黎公約第六條之一之規定於使用他人註冊商標於不同於該商標所指定使用之商品和服務時準用之,但該商標於不同商品或服務之使用造成與註冊商標專用權人間之聯想,致商標專用權人之利益有因該使用受到侵害之虞者為限。

Article 16 Rights Conferred


  1.The owner of a registered trademark shall have the exclusive right to prevent all third parties not having his consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs for goods or services which are identical or similar to those in respect of which the trademark is registered where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion.In case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services, a likelihood of confusion shall be presumed.The rights described above shall not prejudice any existing prior rights, nor shall they affect the possibility of Members making rights available on the basis of use.
  2.Article 6bis of the Paris Convention(1967)shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to services.In determining whether a trademark is well-known, account shall be taken of the knowledge of the trademark in the relevant sector of the public, including knowledge in that Member obtained as a result of the promotion of the trademark.
  3.Article 6bis of the Paris Convention(1967)shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to goods or services which are not similar to those in respect of which a trademark is registered, provided that use of that trademark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the registered trademark and provided that the interests of the owner of the registered trademark are likely to be damaged by such use.

第17條 例外


  會員得制定商標專用權之有限度例外規定,例如合理使用描述性文字;但此例外以不侵害商標專用權人及第三人之合法權益為限。

Article 17 Exceptions


  Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark, such as fair use of descriptive terms, provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the trademark and of third parties.

第18條 保護期間


  商標首次註冊及延展註冊所獲得之保護期間,不得少於七年。商標應可無限次延展註冊。

Article 18 Term of Protection


  Initial registration, and each renewal of registration, of a trademark shall be for a term of no less than seven years.The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely.

第19條 使用要件


  1.若以使用為維持註冊之要件,須商標專用權人無正當事由繼續三年以上未使用,始得撤銷其註冊。但商標專用權人證明未使用係基於正當事由者,不在此限。商標之未使用非出於商標專用權人之意願者,例如該商標指定使用之商品或服務因進口限制或其他政府規定,應視為未使用之正當事由。
  2.如他人之使用商標在商標專用權人監督之下者,其使用應視為該註冊商標之使用。

Article 19 Requirement of Use


  1.If use is required to maintain a registration, the registration may be cancelled only after an uninterrupted period of at least three years of non-use, unless valid reasons based on the existence of obstacles to such use are shown by the trademark owner.Circumstances arising independently of the will of the owner of the trademark which constitute an obstacle to the use of the trademark, such as import restrictions on or other government requirements for goods or services protected by the trademark, shall be recognized as valid reasons for non-use.
  2.When subject to the control of its owner, use of a trademark by another person shall be recognized as use of the trademark for the purpose of maintaining the registration.

第20條 其他要件


  商標於交易過程之使用,不應受特別要件的不合理妨礙;例如須與其他商標共同使用、須以特 別的形式使用、或須以足對區別一企業與他企業之商品或服務之功能產生減損之方式使用,均 是。此規定並不排除設置要件,以要求將表彰生產物品或服務的企業商標必須與區別該企業所 生之特定產品或服務的商標配合使;但不得要求將此二商標聯結。

Article 20 Other Requirements


  The use of a trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special requirements, such as use with another trademark, use in a special form or use in a manner detrimental to its capability to distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings.This will not preclude a requirement prescribing the use of the trademark identifying the undertaking producing the goods or services along with, but without linking it to, the trademark distinguishing the specific goods or services in question of that undertaking.

第21條 授權與移轉會員得規定商標授權與移轉之要件。


  惟不得制定商標之強制授權。無論所屬營業是否一併移轉,商標所有人應有移轉其註冊商標之權利。

Article 21 Licensing and Assignment


  Members may determine conditions on the licensing and assignment of trademarks, it being understood that the compulsory licensing of trademarks shall not be permitted and that the owner of a registered trademark shall have the right to assign his trademark with or without the transfer of the business to which the trademark belongs.

回索引〉〉

第二篇  智慧財產權之有效性、範圍暨使用  3.標示

第22條 產地標示之保護


  1.本協定所稱之產地標示係指為辦別一項商品標示係產自一會員之領域,或其領域內之某一地區或地點,且該商品之特定品質,聲譽或其他性質,根本上係來自於原產地者。
  2.會員應提供產地標示之利害關係人法律途徑以防止:
  (a)於設計或展示商品時,使用任何方式明示或暗示系爭商品產自非其實際產地之其他產地並致公眾誤認該商品產地者;
  (b)構成(一九六七年)巴黎公約第十條之一所稱不公平競爭之任何使用行為。1.商標與非其商品原產地之產地標示結合或構成,且在某一會員國內使用含該標示之商標於所述 商品,本質上將造成公眾誤認其實際產地者;該會員應依法定職權,或利害關係人之申請,不准此等商標之註冊或評定其註冊無效。
  3.商品之產地標示,縱確係該商品產地之領域、地區或地點,惟向公眾為該商品係產自其他 領域之不實表示者,本條第一、第二及第三項各項規定仍適用之。

Article 22 Protection of Geographical Indications


  1.Geographical indications are, for the purposes of this Agreement, indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.
  2.In respect of geographical indications, Members shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent:
  (a)the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the good in question originates in a geographical area other than the true place of origin in a manner which misleads the public as to the geographical origin of the good;
  (b)any use which constitutes an act of unfair competition within the meaning of Article 10bis of the Paris Convention(1967).
  3.A Member shall, ex officio if its legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party, refuse or invalidate the registration of a trademark which contains or consists of a geographical indication with respect to goods not originating in the territory indicated, if use of the indication in the trademark for such goods in that Member is of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the true place of origin.
  4.The provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article shall apply to a geographical indication which, although literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the goods originate, falsely represents to the public that the goods originate in another territory.

第23條 酒類和烈酒產地標示之額外保護


  1.會員應提供利害關係人法律途徑;以防止非產自該產地之酒類或烈酒使用系爭之產地標示;即使已明確標示該商品之實際產地,或該產地標示係翻譯用語或補充說明與該產地商品 「同類」、「同型」、「同風格」、「相仿」或其他類似標示者亦然。
  2.酒類或烈酒之商標包括該等商品產地之產地標示或以地理標示構成者,會員應依法定職權或利害關係人之申請不准該商標之註冊或評定其註冊無效。
  3.酒類之產地標示若屬同名者,各標示均應保護之,但以合於前條第四項規定者為限。各會員應在確保相關生產者獲公平待遇之必要性及消費者不致誤導者前提下,訂定可行規定,以區別相關之同名標示。
  4.為促進會員對酒類之產地標示之保護,與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定理事會應就建立保護 之酒類之產地標示通知及註冊之多邊體系進行諮商,使酒類產品於參與該體系之會員間獲得保護。

Article 23 Additional Protection for Geographical Indications for Wines and Spirits


  1.Each Member shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent use of a geographical indication identifying wines for wines not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in question or identifying spirits for spirits not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in question, even where the true origin of the goods is indicated or the geographical indication is used in translation or accompanied by expressions such as "kind", "type", "style", "imitation" or the like.4
  2.The registration of a trademark for wines which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying wines or for spirits which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying spirits shall be refused or invalidated, ex officio if domestic legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party, with respect to such wines or spirits not having this origin.
  3.In the case of homonymous geographical indications for wines, protection shall be accorded to each indication, subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 22 above.Each Member shall determine the practical conditions under which the homonymous indications in question will be differentiated from each other, taking into account the need to ensure equitable treatment of the producers concerned and that consumers are not misled.
  4.In order to facilitate the protection of geographical indications for wines, negotiations shall be undertaken in the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights concerning the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines eligible for protection in those Members participating in the system.

第24條 國際談判:例外


  1.會員同意依據前條規定,就加強對個別產地標示之保護進行談判。會員不得據第四項至第八項之規定拒絕進行談判,或簽訂雙邊或多邊協定。就此談判而言,會員必須願意考慮適用此等條款於涵蓋於談判主題之個別產地標示上之使用。
  2.與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定理事會應隨時檢討本節規定之適用情形;首次檢討應於世界 貿易組織協定生效後兩年內進行。任何足以影響遵守此等條款下之義務之情事均應通知理 事會;上開情事若透過有關會員間之雙邊或複邊諮商無法達成合意之解決方案時,理事會 應依會員之請求,與任一會員或數個會員間進行協商。理事會應採取所同意之措施以促進 合作並提昇本節之宗旨。
  3.會員於執行本節規定時,不得減損世界貿易組織協定生效前已於該國存在之產地標示之保護。
  4.本節之規定不得要求會員禁止其國民或居民繼續使用另一會員有關酒類同一或類似之商品或服務之特殊產地標示,但以在該會員境內連續使用此產地標示於相關商品和服務上,並 合於下列情事之一者為限:(a)在西元一九九四年四月十五日以前,已達十年以上者;或(b)於上開日期前係善意使用者。
  5.商標之申請或註冊係屬善意者,或商標專用權係因善意使用而取得,該二種情形之一係於:
  (a)此等規定係於該會員依第六篇實施之前;或
  (b)該產地標示於原產國受保護之前取得,依本節規定所採行之措施,不得因此商標相同或近似於產地標示,而損及此商標註冊之資格或有效性,或使用之權利。
  6.本節之規定並未要求會員對於其他會員之產地標示之保護,及於與其相同但係以普通使用方法表示商品或服務之通用名稱。本節之規定並未要求會員對於任何其他會員之葡萄產品之產地標示之保護,及於與其相同但於WTO協定生效之前已於該會員存在之葡萄品種通用名稱。
  7.會員得規定,依本節對商標之使用或註冊提出之任何請求,必須於該受保護之標示受到不當使用且在於該會員境內不當使用且已成為眾所周知後五年內為之,或於該會員註冊為商標(設若其於同日公告五年內為之;但須該註冊日期早於因不當使用於該會員境內成為眾所周知之日期。但該產地標示之使用或註冊為惡意者,不適用之。
  8.本節之規定不得侵害任何人於商業交易中使用其姓名或其營業之被繼受人之姓名之權利。但其使用以不致公眾誤認者為限。
  9.原產地境內未獲得保護或已停止受到保護之產地標示,或於該國已不使用之產地標示,本協定並不課以保護之義務。

Article 24 International Negotiations; Exceptions


  1.Members agree to enter into negotiations aimed at increasing the protection of individual geographical indications under Article 23.The provisions of paragraphs 4-8 below shall not be used by a Member to refuse to conduct negotiations or to conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements.In the context of such negotiations, Members shall be willing to consider the continued applicability of these provisions to individual geographical indications whose use was the subject of such negotiations.
  2.The Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights shall keep under review the application of the provisions of this Section; the first such review shall take place within two years of the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO.Any matter affecting the compliance with the obligations under these provisions may be drawn to the attention of the Council, which, at the request of a Member, shall consult with any Member or Members in respect of such matter in respect of which it has not been possible to find a satisfactory solution through bilateral or plurilateral consultations between the Members concerned.The Council shall take such action as may be agreed to facilitate the operation and further the objectives of this Section.
  3.In implementing this Section, a Member shall not diminish the protection of geographical indications that existed in that Member immediately prior to the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO.
  4.Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to prevent continued and similar use of a particular geographical indication of another Member identifying wines or spirits in connection with goods or services by any of its nationals or domiciliaries who have used that geographical indication in a continuous manner with regard to the same or related goods or services in the territory of that Member either(a)for at least ten years preceding the date of the Ministerial Meeting concluding the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations or(b)in good faith preceding that date.
  5.Where a trademark has been applied for or registered in good faith, or where rights to a trademark have been acquired through use in good faith either:
  (a)before the date of application of these provisions in that Member as defined in Part VI below; or
  (b)before the geographical indication is protected in its country of origin; measures adopted to implement this Section shall not prejudice eligibility for or the validity of the registration of a trademark, or the right to use a trademark, on the basis that such a trademark is identical with, or similar to, a geographical indication.
  6.Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical indication of any other Member with respect to goods or services for which the relevant indication is identical with the term customary in common language as the common name for such goods or services in the territory of that Member.Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical indication of any other Member with respect to products of the vine for which the relevant indication is identical with the customary name of a grape variety existing in the territory of that Member as of the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO.
  7.A Member may provide that any request made under this Section in connection with the use or registration of a trademark must be presented within five years after the adverse use of the protected indication has become generally known in that Member or after the date of registration of the trademark in that Member provided that the trademark has been published by that date, if such date is earlier than the date on which the adverse use became generally known in that Member, provided that the geographical indication is not used or registered in bad faith.
  8.The provisions of this Section shall in no way prejudice the right of any person to use, in the course of trade, his name or the name of his predecessor in business, except where such name is used in such a manner as to mislead the public.
  9.There shall be no obligation under this Agreement to protect geographical indications which are not or cease to be protected in their country of origin, or which have fallen into disuse in that country.

回索引〉〉

第二篇  智慧財產權之有效性、範圍暨使用  4.工業設計

第25條 保護要件


  1.會員應對獨創之工業設計具新穎性或原創性者,規定予以保護。會員得規定,工業設計與 已知之設計之結合無顯著差異時,為不具新穎性或原創性。會員得規定,此種保護之範圍,不及於基於技術或功能性之需求所為之設計。
  2.會員應確保對紡織品設計之申請保護要件,不致因費用、審查或公告程序,不當損害尋求 或取得此項保護之機會。會員得以工業設計法或著作權法提供此項保護。

Article 25 Requirements for Protection


  1.Members shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original.Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or combinations of known design features.Members may provide that such protection shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
  2.Each Member shall ensure that requirements for securing protection for textile designs, in particular in regard to any cost, examination or publication, do not unreasonably impair the opportunity to seek and obtain such protection.Members shall be free to meet this obligation through industrial design law or through copyright law.

第26條 權利保護範圍


  1.工業設計所有權人有權禁止未經其同意之第三人,基於商業目的而製造、販賣、或進口附有其設計或近似設計之物品。
  2.會員得規定工業設計保護之例外規定,但以於考量第三人之合法權益下其並未不合理地抵 觸該權利之一般使用,且並未不合理侵害權利人之合法權益者為限。
  3.權利保護期限至少應為十年。

Article 26 Protection


  1.The owner of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having his consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy, or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.
  2.Members may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.
  3.The duration of protection available shall amount to at least ten years.

回索引〉〉

第二篇  智慧財產權之有效性、範圍暨使用  5.專利

第27條 專用權保護客體


  1.於受本條第二項及第三項規定拘束之前提下,凡屬各類技術領域內之物品或方法發明,具備新穎性、進步性及實用性者,應給予專利保護。依據第六十五條第四項、第七十條第八項,及本條第三項,應予專利之保護,且權利範圍不得因發明地、技術領域、或產品是否為進口或在本地製造,而有差異。
  2.會員得基於保護公共秩序或道德之必要,而禁止某類發明之商業性利用而不給予專利,其公共秩序或道德包括保護人類、動物、植物生命或健康或避免對環境的嚴重破壞。但僅因該發明之使用為境內法所禁止者,不適用之。
  3.會員得不予專利保護之客體包括:
  (a)對人類或動物疾病之診斷、治療及手術方法;
  (b)微生物以外之植物與動物,及除「非生物」及微生物方法外之動物、植物產品的主要生物育成方法。會員應規定以專利法、或單獨立法或前二者組合之方式給予植物品種 保護。本款於世界貿易組織協定生效四年後予以檢討。

Article 27 Patentable Subject Matter


  1.Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 below, patents shall be available for any inventions, whether products or processes, in all fields of technology, provided that they are new, involve an inventive step and are capable of industrial application.5 Subject to paragraph 4 of Article 65, paragraph 8 of Article 70 and paragraph 3 of this Article, patents shall be available and patent rights enjoyable without discrimination as to the place of invention, the field of technology and whether products are imported or locally produced.
  2.Members may exclude from patentability inventions, the prevention within their territory of the commercial exploitation of which is necessary to protect ordre public or morality, including to protect human, animal or plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment, provided that such exclusion is not made merely because the exploitation is prohibited by domestic law.
  3.Members may also exclude from patentability:
  (a)diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals;
  (b)plants and animals other than microorganisms, and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non- biological and microbiological processes.However, Members shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by any combination thereof.The provisions of this sub-paragraph shall be reviewed four years after the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO.

第28條 所授與之權利


  1.專利權人享有下列專屬權:物品專利權人得禁止未經其同意之第三人製造、使用、要約販賣、販賣或為上述目的而進口其專利物品。方法專利權人得禁止未經其同意之第三人使用其方法,並得禁止使用、要約販賣、販賣或 為上述目的而進口其方法直接製成之物品。
  2.專利權人得讓與、繼承、及授權使用其專利。

Article 28 Rights Conferred


  1.A patent shall confer on its owner the following exclusive rights:
  (a)where the subject matter of a patent is a product, to prevent third parties not having his consent from the acts of: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing6 for these purposes that product;
  (b)where the subject matter of a patent is a process, to prevent third parties not having his consent from the act of using the process, and from the acts of: using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process.
  2.Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer by succession, the patent and to conclude licensing contracts.

第29條 專利申請人之條件


  1.會員應規定專利申請人須以清晰及完整之方式,揭露其發明,達於熟習該項技術者可據以實施之程度,會員並得要求申請人在申請日或優先權日(若有主張優先權者),表明其所 知悉實施其專利之最有效方式。
  2.會員得要求申請人提供就同一發明在外國提出申請及獲得專利之情形。

Article 29 Conditions on Patent Applicants


  1.Members shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art and may require the applicant to indicate the best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the filing date or, where priority is claimed, at the priority date of the application.
  2.Members may require an applicant for a patent to provide information concerning his corresponding foreign applications and grants.

第30條 專利權之例外規定


  會員得規定專利權之例外規定,但以其於考量第三人之合法權益下,並未不合理抵觸專屬權之一般使用,並未不合理侵害專利權人之合法權益者為限。

Article 30 Exceptions to Rights Conferred


  Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.

第31條 未經權利人授權之其他使用


  未經權利人授權之其他使用會員之法律允許不經專利權人之授權而為其他實施時,或經政府特許之第三人實施其專利之情形者,應符合下列規定:
  (a)此類特許實施必須基於個案之考量;
  (b)特許實施申請人曾就專利授權事項以合理之商業條件與權利人極力協商,如仍無法於合理期間內取得授權者,方可准予特許實施。會員得規定國家緊急危難或其他緊急情況或基於非營利之公益考量下,可不受前揭限制而准予特許實施。其因國家緊急危難或其他緊急情 況而准予特許實施時,須儘可能速予通知專利權人。如係基於非營利之公益使用者,政府 或其承攬人於未經專利檢索之情況下,即可知或有理由可知有效之專利內容為或將為政府 所使用,或基於政府之需要利用者,應即刻通知專利權人;
  (c)特許實施之範圍及期間應限於所特許之目的;有關半導體技術則以非營利之公益使用,或作為經司法或行政程序確定之反競爭措施之救濟為限;
  (d)特許之實施應無專屬性;
  (e)特許移轉或善意實施者外實施權,除與特許實施有關之營業一併移轉外,不得讓與。
  (f)特許實施應以供應會員國內市場需要為主;
  (g)於不損害特許實施權人之合法利益下,特許實施之原因消滅且回復可能性不高時,特許實施應予終止。專利主管機關依申請時,應審查特許實施之原因是否繼續存在。
  (h)在考慮各個專利的經濟價值下,針對各別情況給付相當報酬予權利人。
  (i)特許實施之處分合法性,應由會員之司法機關審查,或由其上級機關為獨立之審查。
  (j)有關權利金之決定,應由會員司法機關審查,或由其上級機關為獨立之審查。
  (k)會員於依司法或行政程序認定具有反競爭性,而以特許實施作為救濟時,得不受(b)項與(f)項之拘束。補償金額度得考量糾正反競爭行為之需要。特許實施原因有可能再發生時,主管機關應有權不予終止特許實施。
  (l)某一專利權(第二專利)必須侵害另一專利權(第一專利),始得實施時,得特許其實施。但必須符合下列要件:
  (i)第二專利之發明,相對於第一專利權申請專利範圍,應具相當的經濟上意義之重要技術改良;
  (ii)第一專利權人應有權在合理條件下以交互授權之方式,使用第二專利權。
  (iii)第一專利權之特許實施權,除與第二專利權一併移轉外,不得移轉。

Article 31 Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder


  Where the law of a Member allows for other use7 of the subject matter of a patent without the authorization of the right holder, including use by the government or third parties authorized by the government, the following provisions shall be respected:
  (a)authorization of such use shall be considered on its individual merits;
  (b)such use may only be permitted if, prior to such use, the proposed user has made efforts to obtain authorization from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and that such efforts have not been successful within a reasonable period of time.This requirement may be waived by a Member in the case of a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency or in cases of public non-commercial use.In situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, the right holder shall, nevertheless, be notified as soon as reasonably practicable.In the case of public non-commercial use, where the government or contractor, without making a patent search, knows or has demonstrable grounds to know that a valid patent is or will be used by or for the government, the right holder shall be informed promptly;
  (c)the scope and duration of such use shall be limited to the purpose for which it was authorized, and in the case of semi-conductor technology shall only be for public non-commercial use or to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive.
  (d)such use shall be non-exclusive;
  (e)such use shall be non-assignable, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which enjoys such use;
  (f)any such use shall be authorized predominantly for the supply of the domestic market of the Member authorizing such use;
  (g)authorization for such use shall be liable, subject to adequate protection of the legitimate interests of the persons so authorized, to be terminated if and when the circumstances which led to it cease to exist and are unlikely to recur.The competent authority shall have the authority to review, upon motivated request, the continued existence of these circumstances;
  (h)the right holder shall be paid adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the economic value of the authorization;
  (i)the legal validity of any decision relating to the authorization of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
  (j)any decision relating to the remuneration provided in respect of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
  (k)Members are not obliged to apply the conditions set forth in sub- paragraphs(b)and(f)above where such use is permitted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti- competitive.The need to correct anti-competitive practices may be taken into account in determining the amount of remuneration in such cases.Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination of authorization if and when the conditions which led to such authorization are likely to recur;
  (l)where such use is authorized to permit the exploitation of a patent("the second patent")which cannot be exploited without infringing another patent("the first patent"), the following additional conditions shall apply:
  (i)the invention claimed in the second patent shall involve an important technical advance of considerable economic significance in relation to the invention claimed in the first patent;
  (ii)the owner of the first patent shall be entitled to a cross-licence on reasonable terms to use the invention claimed in the second patent; and
  (iii)the use authorized in respect of the first patent shall be non- assignable except with the assignment of the second patent.

第32條 撤銷或失權


  撤銷或失權對撤銷或失權之決定,應提供司法審查。

Article 32 Revocation/Forfeiture


  An opportunity for judicial review of any decision to revoke or forfeit a patent shall be available.

第33條 專利保護期限


  專利保護期限專利權期間自申請日起,至少二十年。

Article 33 Term of Protection


  The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years counted from the filing date.8

第34條 方法專利:舉證責任


  1.第二十八條第一項(b)款之專利權受侵害之民事訴訟中,若該專利為製法專利時,司法機關應有權要求被告舉證其係以不同製法取得與專利方法所製相同之物品。會員應規定,有下列情事之一者,非專利人同意下製造之同一物品,在無反證時,視為係以該方法專利製造。
  (a)專利方法所製成的產品為新的,
  (b)被告物品有相當的可能係以專利方法製成,且原告已盡力仍無法證明被告確實使用之方法。
  2.會員得規定第一項所示之舉證責任僅在符合第(a)款時始由被告負擔,或僅在符合第(b)款時始由被告人負擔。
  3.在提出反證之過程,有關被告之製造及營業秘密之合法權益應列入考量。

Article 34 Process Patents: Burden of Proof


  1.For the purposes of civil proceedings in respect of the infringement of the rights of the owner referred to in paragraph 1(b)of Article 28 above, if the subject matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a product, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the defendant to prove that the process to obtain an identical product is different from the patented process.Therefore, Members shall provide, in at least one of the following circumstances, that any identical product when produced without the consent of the patent owner shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to have been obtained by the patented process:
  (a)if the product obtained by the patented process is new;
  (b)if there is a substantial likelihood that the identical product was made by the process and the owner of the patent has been unable through reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used.
  2.Any Member shall be free to provide that the burden of proof indicated in paragraph 1 shall be on the alleged infringer only if the condition referred to in sub-paragraph(a)is fulfilled or only if the condition referred to in sub-paragraph(b)is fulfilled.
  3.In the adduction of proof to the contrary, the legitimate interests of the defendant in protecting his manufacturing and business secrets shall be taken into account.

回索引〉〉

第二篇  智慧財產權之有效性、範圍暨使用  6.積體電路之電路布局

第35條 有關積體電路布局智慧財產權條約


  會員同意依照積體電路智慧財產權條約之第二條至第七條(不包括第六條第三項)、第十二條及第十六條第三項保護積體電路電路布局,並遵守下列規定。

Article 35 Relation to IPIC Treaty


  Members agree to provide protection to the layout-designs(topographies)of integrated circuits(hereinafter referred to as "layout-designs")in accordance with Articles 2-7(other than paragraph 3 of Article 6), Article 12 and paragraph 3 of Article 16 of the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits and, in addition, to comply with the following provisions.

第36條 保護範圍


  在受第三十七條第一項規定拘束之前提下,會員應視未經權利人授權之下列行為為違法,包括 :進口、販賣、或基於商業目的而散佈受保護之電路布局、或其內積體電路含有不法複製電路布局之物品。但後者之情形以其仍含有此種不法複製電路布局者為限。

Article 36 Scope of the Protection


  Subject to the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 37 below, Members shall consider unlawful the following acts if performed without the authorization of the right holder:9 importing, selling, or otherwise distributing for commercial purposes a protected layout-design, an integrated circuit in which a protected layout-design is incorporated, or an article incorporating such an integrated circuit only insofar as it continues to contain an unlawfully reproduced layout-design.

第37條 不需權利人授權之行為


  1.縱有第三十六條之規定,對含有不法複製之電路布局之積體電路,或其內積體電路含有不法複製電路布局之物品的規定,如行為人於取得該積體電路或含有該積體電路之物品時並 不知且無適當理由可得而知有包含不法複製電路布局情事者,會員不得視其行為違法。會員應規定該行為人於被充分告知電路布局係不法複製後,仍可處理其擁有之存貨及被告知前之訂單,惟必須支付權利人相當於在自由協議該電路布局授權之情形下所應支付之合理 權利金。
  2.第三十一條,第(a)至(k)項之規定,準用非自願授權之實施;或自政府使用或為政府而使用且未經授權者。

Article 37 Acts not Requiring the Authorization of the Right Holder


  1.Notwithstanding Article 36 above, no Member shall consider unlawful the performance of any of the acts referred to in that Article in respect of an integrated circuit incorporating an unlawfully reproduced layout-design or any article incorporating such an integrated circuit where the person performing or ordering such acts did not know and had no reasonable ground to know, when acquiring the integrated circuit or article incorporating such an integrated circuit, that it incorporated an unlawfully reproduced layout-design.Members shall provide that, after the time that such person has received sufficient notice that the layout-design was unlawfully reproduced, he may perform any of the acts with respect to the stock on hand or ordered before such time, but shall be liable to pay to the right holder a sum equivalent to a reasonable royalty such as would be payable under a freely negotiated licence in respect of such a layout-design.
  2.The conditions set out in sub-paragraphs(a)-(k)of Article 31 above shall apply mutatis mutandis in the event of any non-voluntary licensing of a layout-design or of its use by or for the government without the authorization of the right holder.

第38條 權利保護期間


  1.會員以註冊為權利保護要件時,電路布局保護期限,自註冊申請日或於世界任何地方首次商業利用之日起,至少十年。
  2.當會員不以註冊為保護要件時,電路布局應自世界任何地方首次商業利用之日起,至少十年。
  3.縱有前二項情事時,會員得規定權利保護期間為自該電路布局創作後十五年。

Article 38 Term of Protection


  1.In Members requiring registration as a condition of protection, the term of protection of layout-designs shall not end before the expiration of a period of ten years counted from the date of filing an application for registration or from the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
  2.In Members not requiring registration as a condition for protection, layout-designs shall be protected for a term of no less than ten years from the date of the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
  3.Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2 above, a Member may provide that protection shall lapse fifteen years after the creation of the layout-design.

回索引〉〉

第二篇  智慧財產權之有效性、範圍暨使用  7.未經公開資料之保護

第39條


  1.為依(一九六七年)巴黎公約第十條之二有效保護智慧財產權及防止不公平競爭,會員應就符合下列第二項所規定之未經公開之資料及第三項所規定之提交政府或政府相關機構之資料,予以保護。
  2.自然人及法人對其合法持有之資料,應有防止被洩露或遭他人以有違商業誠信方法取得或使用之可能,但該資料須:具有秘密性質,且不論由就其整體或細節之配置及成分之組合視之,該項資料目前仍不為一般處理同類資料之人所得知悉或取得者;因其秘密性而具有商業價值;且業經資料合法持有人以合理步驟使其保持秘密性。
  3.會員為核准新化學原料之醫藥品或農藥品上市,而要求提供業經相當努力完成且尚未公布之測試或其他相關資料,應防止該項資料被不公平的使用於商業之上。此外,除基於保護公眾之必要,或已採取措施以確實防止該項資料被不公平商業使用外,會員應保護該項資 料並防止洩露。

Article 39 


  1.In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention(1967), Members shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph 2 below and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph 3 below.
  2.Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices10 so long as such information:
  s secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;
  as commercial value because it is secret; and
  as been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.
  3.Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use.In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.

回索引〉〉

第二篇  智慧財產權之有效性、範圍暨使用  8.與契約授權有關之反競爭行為之防制

第40條


  1.會員同意,有些限制競爭之智慧財產權授權行為或條件,可能對貿易產生負面影響,與阻礙技術之移轉及交流。
  2.會員得於立法時明定某些授權行為或條件係屬對相關市場之競爭產生負面影響之智慧財產權的濫用。依照上開規定,任何會員得在其國內相關之法律與規章中,採行與本協定其他 條款不相抵觸之適當方法,以防止或管制此等授權行為,例如:專屬性之回歸授權、禁止 對有效性異議之條件及強制性之包裹授權等。
  3.任一被請求諮商之會員,在其他會員有理由相信屬於被請求諮商會員之擁有智慧財產權之國民或設有住所之人,就本節所規定之事項,實施違反請求諮商之會員之法律規章,而該 請求諮商之會員意欲確保其法規被遵守者,應於受請求時與之進行諮商;但此並不影響在 任何一方會員法律下所採取之行動及其為最終決定之充分自主權。受請求之會員應對是項 諮商予以充分而認真之考慮,並應提供適當之機會;其並應透過提供與系爭事項有關之可 公開獲得之非機密資料所及其可獲得之其他資料相互合作,但須受國內法律及請求之會員就防護資料之機密性與受請求之會員達成相互滿意之協議等條件之拘束。」
  4.會員於其國民或設有住所之人如因本節規範事項,被其它一會員違反其法律或規定時,基 於要求,在本條第三項規定之相同條件下,應有被其他會員賦予並無損於任何一方會員依其法律所為之行為及完全自由之最終決定核諮商之機會。

Article 40


  1.Members agree that some licensing practices or conditions pertaining to intellectual property rights which restrain competition may have adverse effects on trade and may impede the transfer and dissemination of technology.
  2.Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent Members from specifying in their national legislation licensing practices or conditions that may in particular cases constitute an abuse of intellectual property rights having an adverse effect on competition in the relevant market.As provided above, a Member may adopt, consistently with the other provisions of this Agreement, appropriate measures to prevent or control such practices, which may include for example exclusive grantback conditions, conditions preventing challenges to validity and coercive package licensing, in the light of the relevant laws and regulations of that Member.
  3.Each Member shall enter, upon request, into consultations with any other Member which has cause to believe that an intellectual property right owner that is a national or domiciliary of the Member to which the request for consultations has been addressed is undertaking practices in violation of the requesting Member's laws and regulations on the subject matter of this Section, and which wishes to secure compliance with such legislation, without prejudice to any action under the law and to the full freedom of an ultimate decision of either Member.The Member addressed shall accord full and sympathetic consideration to, and shall afford adequate opportunity for, consultations with the requesting Member, and shall co-operate through supply of publicly available non-confidential information of relevance to the matter in question and of other information available to the Member, subject to domestic law and to the conclusion of mutually satisfactory agreements concerning the safeguarding of its confidentiality by the requesting Member.
  4.A Member whose nationals or domiciliaries are subject to proceedings in another Member concerning alleged violation of that other Member's laws and regulations on the subject matter of this Section shall, upon request, be granted an opportunity for consultations by the other Member under the same conditions as those foreseen in paragraph 3 above.

回索引〉〉

第三篇  智慧財產權之執行  1.一般義務

第41條


  1.會員應確保本篇所定之執行程序於其國內法律有所規定,以便對本協定所定之侵害智慧財產權行為,採行有效之行動,包括迅速救濟措施以防止侵害行為及對進一步之侵害行為產生遏阻之救濟措施。前述程序執行應避免對合法貿易造成障礙,並應提供防護措施以防止 其濫用。
  2.有關智慧財產權之執行程序應公平且合理。其程序不應無謂的繁瑣或過於耗費,或予以不合理之時限或任意的遲延。
  3.就案件實體內容所作之決定應儘可能以書面為之,並載明理由,而且至少應使涉案當事人均能迅速取得該書面;前揭決定,僅能依據已予當事人答辯機會之證據為之。
  4.當事人應有權請求司法機關就其案件最終行政決定為審查,並至少在合於會員有關案件重 要性的管轄規定條件下,請求司法機關就初級司法實體判決之法律見解予以審查。但會員 並無義務就已宣判無罪之刑事案件提供再審查之機會。
  5.會員瞭解,本篇所規定之執行,並不強制要求會員於其現有之司法執行系統之外,另行建 立一套有關智慧財產權之執行程序;亦不影響會員執行其一般國內法律之能力。本篇對會員而言,並不構成執行智慧財產權與執行其他國內法之人力及資源分配之義務。

Article 41


  1.Members shall ensure that enforcement procedures as specified in this Part are available under their national laws so as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this Agreement, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies which constitute a deterrent to further infringements.These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse.
  2.Procedures concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights shall be fair and equitable.They shall not be unnecessarily complicated or costly, or entail unreasonable time- limits or unwarranted delays.
  3.Decisions on the merits of a case shall preferably be in writing and reasoned.They shall be made available at least to the parties to the proceeding without undue delay.Decisions on the merits of a case shall be based only on evidence in respect of which parties were offered the opportunity to be heard.
  4.Parties to a proceeding shall have an opportunity for review by a judicial authority of final administrative decisions and, subject to jurisdictional provisions in national laws concerning the importance of a case, of at least the legal aspects of initial judicial decisions on the merits of a case.However, there shall be no obligation to provide an opportunity for review of acquittals in criminal cases.
  5.It is understood that this Part does not create any obligation to put in place a judicial system for the enforcement of intellectual property rights distinct from that for the enforcement of laws in general, nor does it affect the capacity of Members to enforce their laws in general.Nothing in this Part creates any obligation with respect to the distribution of resources as between enforcement of intellectual property rights and the enforcement of laws in general.

回索引〉〉

第三篇  智慧財產權之執行  2.民事與行政程序及救濟

第42條 公平及衡平之程序


  會員應賦予權利人行使本協定所涵蓋之智慧財產權之民事訴訟程序之權利。被告有被及時以書面詳細告知其被告之理由及其他相關細節之權利。雙方當事人均得委任獨立之律師代理訴訟, 且訴訟程序於當事人必須親自到庭之相關規定上,不得使當事人增加無謂之負擔。訴訟當事人均應有權提出證據及陳述理由;訴訟程序於不違反憲法規定之原則下,應提供認定與保護秘密 資訊之措施。

Article 42 Fair and Equitable Procedures


  Members shall make available to right holders11 civil judicial procedures concerning the enforcement of any intellectual property right covered by this Agreement.Defendants shall have the right to written notice which is timely and contains sufficient detail, including the basis of the claims.Parties shall be allowed to be represented by independent legal counsel, and procedures shall not impose overly burdensome requirements concerning mandatory personal appearances.All parties to such procedures shall be duly entitled to substantiate their claims and to present all relevant evidence.The procedure shall provide a means to identify and protect confidential information, unless this would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements.

第43條 證據


  1.當一造已提出合理可以獲得之充分證據支持其主張,且指明相關重要證據為對造所持有時,司法機關有權命對造提出該證據。但必須受有確保秘密資訊保護之限制。
  2.當事人一造在合理時間內自願且無正當理由而拒絕提供或未提供必要資訊,或明顯的阻礙執行程序,會員得授權司法機關依據已被提出之資訊,包括因他方拒絕提供資訊而受不利影響之當事人所提出之指控及主張為肯定或否定之初步或最終判決。但應給予當事人就主張或証據辯論之機會。

Article 43 Evidence of Proof


  1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority, where a party has presented reasonably available evidence sufficient to support its claims and has specified evidence relevant to substantiation of its claims which lies in the control of the opposing party, to order that this evidence be produced by the opposing party, subject in appropriate cases to conditions which ensure the protection of confidential information.
  2.In cases in which a party to a proceeding voluntarily and without good reason refuses access to, or otherwise does not provide necessary information within a reasonable period, or significantly impedes a procedure relating to an enforcement action, a Member may accord judicial authorities the authority to make preliminary and final determinations, affirmative or negative, on the basis of the information presented to them, including the complaint or the allegation presented by the party adversely affected by the denial of access to information, subject to providing the parties an opportunity to be heard on the allegations or evidence.

第44條 禁制令


  1.司法機關應有權命當事人停止侵害行為,特別係在於涉有侵害智慧財產權之進口物品,於結關後立即阻止其進入司法管轄區域內之商業管道。會員並無義務使前述司法禁制令適用 於非因明知或可得而知之情況下,致侵害他人智慧財產權之情形。
  2.雖本篇其他部分有特別規定,在合於第二篇特別就政府未經權利人授權使用或政府授權第三人使用之規定條件下,會員可將針對此類使用之救濟限於以依第三十一條(h)項所規定使用報酬之給付。在其他情形,本篇所規定之救濟應有適用,若本篇之救濟與會員法律抵觸,會員仍應提供確認判決及充分之賠償。

Article 44 Injunctions


  1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party to desist from an infringement, inter alia to prevent the entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of imported goods that involve the infringement of an intellectual property right, immediately after customs clearance of such goods.Members are not obliged to accord such authority in respect of protected subject matter acquired or ordered by a person prior to knowing or having reasonable grounds to know that dealing in such subject matter would entail the infringement of an intellectual property right.
  2.Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Part and provided that the provisions of Part II specifically addressing use by governments, or by third parties authorized by a government, without the authorization of the right holder are complied with, Members may limit the remedies available against such use to payment of remuneration in accordance with sub-paragraph(h)of Article 31 above.In other cases, the remedies under this Part shall apply or, where these remedies are inconsistent with national law, declaratory judgments and adequate compensation shall be available.

第45條 損害賠償


  1.司法機關對於明知,或可得而知之情況下,侵害他人智慧財產權之行為人,應令其對權利人因其侵權行為所受之損害,給付相當之賠償。
  2.司法機關亦應有權命令侵害人賠償權利人相關費用,該費用得包括合理之律師費;而於適當之情況下,會員並得授權其司法機關,命侵害人賠償權利人因其侵害行為所失之利益以及(或)預設定的損害,縱使侵害人於行為當時,不知或無可得知其行為係屬侵害他人權 利時亦同。

Article 45 Damages


  1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder damages adequate to compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of an infringement of his intellectual property right by an infringer who knew or had reasonable grounds to know that he was engaged in infringing activity.
  2.The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder expenses, which may include appropriate attorney's fees.In appropriate cases, Members may authorize the judicial authorities to order recovery of profits and/or payment of pre- established damages even where the infringer did not know or had no reasonable grounds to know that he was engaged in infringing activity.

第46條 其他救濟


  為有效遏阻侵害情事,司法機關對於經其認定為侵害智慧財產權之物品,應有權,在無任何形式之補償下,以避免對權利人造成任何損害之方式,命於商業管道外處分之,或在不違反其現行憲法之規定下,予以銷毀,司法機關對於主要用於製造侵害物品之原料與器具,亦應有權在 無任何形式之補償下,以將再為侵害之危險減至最低之方式,命於商業管道外處分之。在斟酌 前述請求時,侵害行為之嚴重性,所命之救濟方式及第三人利益間之比例原則應納入考量,關於商標仿冒品,除有特殊情形外,單純除去物品上之違法商標並不足以允許該物品進入於商業管道。

Article 46 Other Remedies


  In order to create an effective deterrent to infringement, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order that goods that they have found to be infringing be, without compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid any harm caused to the right holder, or, unless this would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements, destroyed.The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order that materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the creation of the infringing goods be, without compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to minimize the risks of further infringements.In considering such requests, the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the infringement and the remedies ordered as well as the interests of third parties shall be taken into account.In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient, other than in exceptional cases, to permit release of the goods into the channels of commerce.

第47條 告知權


  會員得規定司法機關命侵害人告知權利人涉及製造及散布侵害物之其他第三人,以及散布侵害物之管道。但侵害情節輕微者,不在此限。

Article 47 Right of Information


  Members may provide that the judicial authorities shall have the authority, unless this would be out of proportion to the seriousness of the infringement, to order the infringer to inform the right holder of the identity of third persons involved in the production and distribution of the infringing goods or services and of their channels of distribution.

第48條 對被告之賠償


  1.對於濫用保護執行程序,並要求採取措施,致造成他方當事人之行為受到限制或禁制者,司法機關應命前者賠償後者所受到之損害;司法機關亦應命其賠償被告所支出之費用,該費用並得包括適當的律師費。
  2.關於各種保護智慧財產權法律之執行,會員僅得於主管機關及公務員基於善意而採行或意圖採行適切救濟措施時,始得免除其法律責任。

Article 48 Indemnification of the Defendant


  1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party at whose request measures were taken and who has abused enforcement procedures to provide to a party wrongfully enjoined or restrained adequate compensation for the injury suffered because of such abuse.The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the applicant to pay the defendant expenses, which may include appropriate attorney's fees.
  2.In respect of the administration of any law pertaining to the protection or enforcement of intellectual property rights, Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith in the course of the administration of such laws.

第49條 行政程序


  以行政程序對個案給予民事救濟措施時,該行政程序應符合本節所定之各項原則。

Article 49 Administrative Procedures


  To the extent that any civil remedy can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the merits of a case, such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section.

回索引〉〉

第三篇  智慧財產權之執行  3.暫時性措施

第50條


  1.司法機關應有權採取迅速有效之暫時性措施以:
  防止侵害智慧財產權之情事發生,特別是防止侵害物進入管轄區域內之商業管道包括業經海關通關放行之進口物品在內。保全經主張為與侵害行為相關之證據。
  2.司法機關應有權於僅有一造陳述意見之情況下,特別是在任何延宕有可能對權利人造成無可彌補之傷害,或顯見證據可能被銷燬之情形下,依其情形之適當與否,採取暫時性之措 施。
  3.司法機關應有權要求聲請人提出其可獲得之合理有效之證據,俾可適度地證明其係權利人,而且其權利正遭受侵害或有受侵害之虞,並且得命令聲請人提供足夠之擔保,以保護被告及防止聲請人濫用權利。
  4.如係依一造之陳述而採行暫時性措施,最遲應於措施執行後立即通知受該措施影響之當事人。會員應基於被告之請求,對其措施予以包括言詞審理之審查,以便在措施通知後之合理期間內,決定此等措施是否應予修正、撤銷或維持。
  5.執行暫時性措施之機關得要求該暫時措施之聲請人提出其他必要資訊,以確定涉案物品。
  6.於不影響第四項規定之前提下,依第一項及第二項實施之暫時措施,如未於原作成暫時性措施之司法機關,在該會員法律允許情況下所指定之合理期限內訴請就實體部分進行審理,應依被告之請求而予以撤銷或停止效力。如無司法機關之此種對期限之決定,則應在未 逾二十個工作日或三十一個曆日之內提起,但以較長者為準。
  7.如暫時性措施遭到撤銷,或因聲請人之作為或不作為而未生效,或於事後發現並無智慧財產權受侵害之虞之情事,司法機關應依被告之請求,命聲請人賠償被告因暫時性措施所受 之損害。
  8.暫時性措施可由行政機關以行政程序為之者,該程序應符合本節之原則。

Article 50


  1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order prompt and effective provisional measures: 
  (a)to prevent an infringement of any intellectual property right from occurring, and in particular to prevent the entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of goods, including imported goods immediately after customs clearance;
  (b)to preserve relevant evidence in regard to the alleged infringement.
  2.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to adopt provisional measures inaudita altera parte where appropriate, in particular where any delay is likely to cause irreparable harm to the right holder, or where there is a demonstrable risk of evidence being destroyed.
  3.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to require the applicant to provide any reasonably available evidence in order to satisfy themselves with a sufficient degree of certainty that the applicant is the right holder and that his right is being infringed or that such infringement is imminent, and to order the applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and to prevent abuse.
  4.Where provisional measures have been adopted inaudita altera parte, the parties affected shall be given notice, without delay after the execution of the measures at the latest.A review, including a right to be heard, shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable period after the notification of the measures, whether these measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed.
  5.The applicant may be required to supply other information necessary for the identification of the goods concerned by the authority that will execute the provisional measures.
  6.Without prejudice to paragraph 4 above, provisional measures taken on the basis of paragraphs 1 and 2 above shall, upon request by the defendant, be revoked or otherwise cease to have effect, if proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case are not initiated within a reasonable period, to be determined by the judicial authority ordering the measures where national law so permits or, in the absence of such a determination, not to exceed twenty working days or thirty-one calendar days, whichever is the longer.
  7.Where the provisional measures are revoked or where they lapse due to any act or omission by the applicant, or where it is subsequently found that there has been no infringement or threat of infringement of an intellectual property right, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant, upon request of the defendant, to provide the defendant appropriate compensation for any injury caused by these measures.
  8.To the extent that any provisional measure can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures, such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section.

回索引〉〉

第三篇  智慧財產權之執行  4.與邊界措施有關之特殊規定

第51條


  海關之暫不放行措施會員應依照下述之規定,訂定程序,俾使有正當理由懷疑進口物品有仿冒商標或侵害著作權之權利人,得以書面向行政或司法主管機關提出申請,要求海關對此類物品暫不放行。會員得將此種申請程序適用於涉及智慧財產權其他行為之物品,但應符合本節之規 定。會員亦可提供類似程序,由海關對於自其領域出口之侵權物品暫不予放行。

Article 51 Suspension of Release by Customs Authorities


  Members shall, in conformity with the provisions set out below, adopt procedures13 to enable a right holder, who has valid grounds for suspecting that the importation of counterfeit trademark or pirated copyright goods14 may take place, to lodge an application in writing with competent authorities, administrative or judicial, for the suspension by the customs authorities of the release into free circulation of such goods.Members may enable such an application to be made in respect of goods which involve other infringements of intellectual property rights, provided that the requirements of this Section are met.Members may also provide for corresponding procedures concerning the suspension by the customs authorities of the release of infringing goods destined for exportation from their territories.

第52條 申請


  申請會員應要求權利人於依第五十一條規定提出申請時,需向主管機關提出足以推定在進口國法律之下有侵害權利人智慧財產權之表面証據,並就有關物品提供詳細說明,俾使海關易於辨認。主管機關應於合理期間內通知申請人是否已受理申請,主管機關如對海關執行措施期間作 成決定,並應將之通知申請人。

Article 52 Application


  Any right holder initiating the procedures under Article 51 above shall be required to provide adequate evidence to satisfy the competent authorities that, under the laws of the country of importation, there is prima facie an infringement of his intellectual property right and to supply a sufficiently detailed description of the goods to make them readily recognizable by the customs authorities.The competent authorities shall inform the applicant within a reasonable period whether they have accepted the application and, where determined by the competent authorities, the period for which the customs authorities will take action.

第53條 保證金或相當之擔保


  1.主管機關應有權要求申請人提供足夠之保證金或相當之擔保,以保護被告及主管機關,並防止其濫用權利。但該保證金或相當之擔保不得阻礙對此等程序之行使。
  2.依據本節規定提出申請而由海關暫不放行之貨品,其內容涉及工業設計、專利、電路布局及未公開之資訊,海關係基於非司法或其他非獨立機關所作之決定而暫不予放行,且依第五十五條規定之期間已屆滿而未獲得法律授權給予暫時救濟措施,並符合其他有關進口之規定者,貨主、進口商或收貨人應有權於繳交足夠之保證金,以保護權利人免於受侵害後 ,要求該批貨物予以放行。保證金之繳納不得損及權利人之其他救濟措施,權利人未於合 理期間內行使訴訟時,保證金應發還。

Article 53 Security or Equivalent Assurance


  1.The competent authorities shall have the authority to require an applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse.Such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures.
  2.Where pursuant to an application under this Section the release of goods involving industrial designs, patents, layout-designs or undisclosed information into free circulation has been suspended by customs authorities on the basis of a decision other than by a judicial or other independent authority, and the period provided for in Article 55 has expired without the granting of provisional relief by the duly empowered authority, and provided that all other conditions for importation have been complied with, the owner, importer, or consignee of such goods shall be entitled to their release on the posting of a security in an amount sufficient to protect the right holder for any infringement.Payment of such security shall not prejudice any other remedy available to the right holder, it being understood that the security shall be released if the right holder fails to pursue his right of action within a reasonable period of time.

第54條 暫不放行通知


  依第五十一條對貨品暫不予放行者,應立即通知進口商及申請人。

Article 54 Notice of Suspension


  The importer and the applicant shall be promptly notified of the suspension of the release of goods according to Article 51 above.

第55條 暫不放行之期限


  自申請人受暫不放行通知送達後十個工作日內,海關未被告知該案已由被告以外之一方已就該案之實體部分提起訴訟,或該案業經法律授權機關採取臨時措施予以延長留置期間,如該項物 品已符合其他進口或出口之規定者, 海關應予放行;在適當情況下,前述期間可再予延長十個 工作日。該案之實體部分已提起訴訟者,被告在審查中,於合理期間內,主管機關應有權命被 告陳述意見,以決定應否對該措施予以修改、撤銷或確認。但暫不放行措施係依暫時性之司法 措施執行或繼續執行時,應適用第五十條第六項之規定。

Article 55 Duration of Suspension


  If, within a period not exceeding ten working days after the applicant has been served notice of the suspension, the customs authorities have not been informed that proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated by a party other than the defendant, or that the duly empowered authority has taken provisional measures prolonging the suspension of the release of the goods, the goods shall be released, provided that all other conditions for importation or exportation have been complied with; in appropriate cases, this time-limit may be extended by another ten working days.If proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated, a review, including a right to be heard, shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable period, whether these measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed.Notwithstanding the above, where the suspension of the release of goods is carried out or continued in accordance with a provisional judicial measure, the provisions of Article 50, paragraph 6 above shall apply.

第56條 對進口商及之賠償


  因錯誤扣押或扣押後依第五十五條規定放行,對進口商、收貨人及物主造成損害者,相關機關應令申請人給付適當之賠償。

Article 56 Indemnification of the Importer and of the Owner of the Goods


  Relevant authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant to pay the importer, the consignee and the owner of the goods appropriate compensation for any injury caused to them through the wrongful detention of goods or through the detention of goods released pursuant to Article 55 above.

第57條 檢視權利及通知


  檢視權利及通知會員應授權主管機關,於不損及保護機密資料之情況下,給予權利人充分之機會,對海關所查扣之物品進行檢視,俾證實其指控。主管機關亦應有權給予進口商同等檢視物 品之機會。倘就案件實體部分已作成肯定之裁決時,會員得授權主管機關,將發貨人、進口商 及收貨人之姓名及地址,以及有關物品之數量通知權利人。

Article 57 Right of Inspection and Information


  Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information, Members shall provide the competent authorities the authority to give the right holder sufficient opportunity to have any product detained by the customs authorities inspected in order to substantiate his claims.The competent authorities shall also have authority to give the importer an equivalent opportunity to have any such product inspected.Where a positive determination has been made on the merits of a case, Members may provide the competent authorities the authority to inform the right holder of the names and addresses of the consignor, the importer and the consignee and of the quantity of the goods in question.

第58條 依職權之行為


  依職權之行為倘會員要求其主管機關主動採取措施,並要求其對於表面證據題示有侵害智慧財產權之貨品暫不放行者:(a)主管機關得隨時要求權利人提供資料,以協助其行使職權。(b)採取暫不放行措施時,應立即通知進口商及權利人。進口商就該項暫不放行措施向主管機關提出申覆時,應準用第五十五條之規定。(c)會員應僅於主管機關及公務員基於善意採行或意圖採行 適當救濟措施時,始得免除其法律責任。

Article 58 Ex Officio Action


  Where Members require competent authorities to act upon their own initiative and to suspend the release of goods in respect of which they have acquired prima facie evidence that an intellectual property right is being infringed:
  (a)the competent authorities may at any time seek from the right holder any information that may assist them to exercise these powers;
  (b)the importer and the right holder shall be promptly notified of the suspension.Where the importer has lodged an appeal against the suspension with the competent authorities, the suspension shall be subject to the conditions, mutatis mutandis, set out at Article 55 above;
  (c)Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith.

第59條 救濟措施


  救濟措施在不損及權利人採取其他訴訟之權利,以及被告尋求司法機關審查之權利之前提下,主管機關有權命依照第四十六條所揭櫫之原則銷燬或處置侵害智慧財產權之物品。對於仿冒商標物品,主管機關除特殊情況外,不得允許該侵權物品未作改變狀態下,或適用不同之海關程 序再出口。

Article 59 Remedies


  Without prejudice to other rights of action open to the right holder and subject to the right of the defendant to seek review by a judicial authority, competent authorities shall have the authority to order the destruction or disposal of infringing goods in accordance with the principles set out in Article 46 above.In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the authorities shall not allow the re-exportation of the infringing goods in an unaltered state or subject them to a different customs procedure, other than in exceptional circumstances.

第60條 微量進口


  微量進口會員對於旅客個人行李或小包寄送無商業性質之少量物品,得免除上述條款之適用。

Article 60 De Minimis Imports


  Members may exclude from the application of the above provisions small quantities of goods of a non-commercial nature contained in travellers' personal luggage or sent in small consignments.

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第三篇  智慧財產權之執行  5.刑事程序

第61條


  會員至少應對具有商業規模而故意仿冒商標或侵害著作權之案件,訂定刑事程序及罰則。救濟 措施應包括足可產生嚇阻作用之徒刑及(或)罰金,並應和同等程度之其他刑事案件之量刑一致。必要時,救濟措施亦應包括對侵權物品以及主要用於侵害行為之材料及器具予以扣押、沒收或銷燬。會員亦得對其他侵害智慧財產權之案件,特別是故意違法並具商業規模者,訂定刑事程序及罰則。

Article 61 


  Members shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of wilful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale.Remedies available shall include imprisonment and/or monetary fines sufficient to provide a deterrent, consistently with the level of penalties applied for crimes of a corresponding gravity.In appropriate cases, remedies available shall also include the seizure, forfeiture and destruction of the infringing goods and of any materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the commission of the offence.Members may provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in other cases of infringement of intellectual property rights, in particular where they are committed wilfully and on a commercial scale.

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第四篇  智慧財產權之取得與維持及相關之當事人間程序

第62條


  1.會員得規定應遵守合理之程序及手續,作為依本協定第二篇第二節至第六節規定取得及維持智慧財產權之條件。而此程序及手續應符合本協定之規定。
  2.智慧財產權之取得需經由核准或登記者,會員應確保,於符合權利取得之實質條件下,應使權利之核准或登記在合理期間內完成,以避免保護期間遭不當之縮減。
  3.服務標章應準用(一九六七年)巴黎公約第四條之規定。
  4.會員法律已訂有智慧財產權取得或維持之程序,行政撤銷,以及兩造間之程序,例如異議 、撤銷或註銷者,應適用第四十一條第二項及第三項一般原則之規定。
  5.第四項所定任何程序之最終行政決定應受司法或準司法機關之審查。但就異議或行政撤銷不成立,並無義務提供審查之機會,惟提起該等異議或行政撤銷程序所根據之理由得受( 行政)無效程序之處理。

Article 62


  1.Members may require, as a condition of the acquisition or maintenance of the intellectual property rights provided for under Sections 2-6 of Part II of this Agreement, compliance with reasonable procedures and formalities.Such procedures and formalities shall be consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.
  2.Where the acquisition of an intellectual property right is subject to the right being granted or registered, Members shall ensure that the procedures for grant or registration, subject to compliance with the substantive conditions for acquisition of the right, permit the granting or registration of the right within a reasonable period of time so as to avoid unwarranted curtailment of the period of protection.
  3.Article 4 of the Paris Convention(1967)shall apply mutatis mutandis to service marks.
  4.Procedures concerning the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights and, where the national law provides for such procedures, administrative revocation and inter partes procedures such as opposition, revocation and cancellation, shall be governed by the general principles set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 41.
  5.Final administrative decisions in any of the procedures referred to under paragraph 4 above shall be subject to review by a judicial or quasi-judicial authority.However, there shall be no obligation to provide an opportunity for such review of decisions in cases of unsuccessful opposition or administrative revocation, provided that the grounds for such procedures can be the subject of invalidation procedures.

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第五篇  爭端之預防及解決

第63條 透明化


  1.各會員所訂有效之法律、規則、最終司法判決及一般適用之行政決定等,凡與本協定實體 內容相關者(智慧財產權之有效性、範圍、取得、執行及防止濫用), 均應以其官方語言 公告,但公告於實際上不可行時,應使其內容可以公開取得,以使各國政府及權利人對之 熟悉。任一會員與其他會員之政府或政府機構間所訂立與本協定實體內容有關之有效協定 ,亦應公告。
  2.各會員均應將前項有關之法律、規則通知與貿易有關之智慧財產權理事會,俾使該理事會 審查本協定之執行。理事會在與世界智慧財產權組織就成立各項法律、規則之一般登記方 式諮商成功時,應儘可能減輕會員履行上述義務之負擔,並得決定免除會員將有關法律、 規則直接通知委員會之義務。委員會亦應考量本協定所為之各項通知義務係源自於巴黎公約(一九六七年)第六條之規定的關連性。
  3.各會員因其他會員書面之要求,應提供第一項所列之各項資料。一會員如有理由相信智慧 財產權之某一特定司法判決或行政決定或雙邊協定等影響其在本協定之權益時,得以書面 要求取得或被告知前揭事項之詳細內容。
  4.前三項規定並不要求會員公開足以阻礙法律執行、違反公共利益或損害特定公有或私人企業合法商業利益之機密資料。

Article 63 Transparency


  1.Laws and regulations, and final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application, made effective by any Member pertaining to the subject matter of this Agreement(the availability, scope, acquisition, enforcement and prevention of the abuse of intellectual property rights)shall be published, or where such publication is not practicable made publicly available, in a national language, in such a manner as to enable governments and right holders to become acquainted with them.Agreements concerning the subject matter of this Agreement which are in force between the government or a governmental agency of any Member and the government or a governmental agency of any other Member shall also be published.
  2.Members shall notify the laws and regulations referred to in paragraph 1 above to the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in order to assist that Council in its review of the operation of this Agreement.The Council shall attempt to minimize the burden on Members in carrying out this obligation and may decide to waive the obligation to notify such laws and regulations directly to the Council if consultations with the World Intellectual Property Organization on the establishment of a common register containing these laws and regulations are successful.The Council shall also consider in this connection any action required regarding notifications pursuant to the obligations under this Agreement stemming from the provisions of Article 6ter of the Paris Convention(1967).
  3.Each Member shall be prepared to supply, in response to a written request from another Member, information of the sort referred to in paragraph 1 above.A Member, having reason to believe that a specific judicial decision or administrative ruling or bilateral agreement in the area of intellectual property rights affects its rights under this Agreement, may also request in writing to be given access to or be informed in sufficient detail of such specific judicial decisions or administrative rulings or bilateral agreements.
  4.Nothing in paragraphs 1 to 3 above shall require Members to disclose confidential information which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.

第64條 爭端解決


  1.爭端解決瞭解書所解釋及適用之GATT 1994第二十二條及第二十三條,應適用於本協定之爭端諮商與解決。但本協定另有規定者,不在此限。
  2.GATT 1994第二十三條第一項(b)款與(c)款,於WTO協定生效後五年內不適用之。
  3.前項期間內,與貿易有關之智慧財產權理事會應依本協定審理有關 GATT 1994第三十三條第一項(b)款與(c)款之控訴範圍暨型態,並將其建議送交部長級會議通過。無論通過該建議 或延長前項期間,部長級會議應以以共識決作決定;且通過之建議,其效力及於全體會員 ,不待其為進一步正式接受之程序。

Article 64 Dispute Settlement


  1.The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement except as otherwise specifically provided herein.
  2.Sub-paragraphs XXIII:1(b)and XXIII:1(c)of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 shall not apply to the settlement of disputes under this Agreement for a period of five years from the entry into force of the Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization.
  3.During the time period referred to in paragraph 2, the TRIPS Council shall examine the scope and modalities for Article XXIII:1(b)and Article XXIII:1(c)-type complaints made pursuant to this Agreement, and submit its recommendations to the Ministerial Conference for approval.Any decision of the Ministerial Conference to approve such recommendations or to extend the period in paragraph 2 shall be made only by consensus, and approved recommendations shall be effective for all Members without further formal acceptance process.

回索引〉〉

第六篇  過渡性措施

第65條 過渡性安排


  1.在受第二項、第三項、第四項拘束之前提下,會員自WTO協定生效後一年內並無義務適用本協定之規定。
  2.任一開發中國家會員,對本協定之適用,除第一篇第三條第四條第五條規定外,得將前項期間另行延緩四年執行。
  3.任一會員正處於由中央管制經濟轉型為自由企業經濟之過程中,且正進行重建智慧財產權體制結構,如在準備與執行智慧財產權過程中面臨特殊問題時,亦得享有前項之延緩期限。
  4.屬開發中國家之會員,如依第二項規定,應於適用本協定之日,遵守本協定將其產品專利保護擴張至該國未予保護之科技領域時,該會員得就本協定第二篇第五節之科技領域再行延緩五年實施。
  5.任一會員適用前四項過渡期間者,應確保其於該期間內對其國內法律、規則與執行內容有所修正時,不會導致與本協定規定之符合程度降低。

Article 65 Transitional Arrangements


  1.Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 below, no Member shall be obliged to apply the provisions of this Agreement before the expiry of a general period of one year following the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO.
  2.Any developing country Member is entitled to delay for a further period of four years the date of application, as defined in paragraph 1 above, of the provisions of this Agreement other than Articles 3, 4 and 5 of Part I.
  3.Any other Member which is in the process of transformation from a centrally- planned into a market, free-enterprise economy and which is undertaking structural reform of its intellectual property system and facing special problems in the preparation and implementation of intellectual property laws, may also benefit from a period of delay as foreseen in paragraph 2 above.
  4.To the extent that a developing country Member is obliged by this Agreement to extend product patent protection to areas of technology not so protectable in its territory on the general date of application of this Agreement for that Member, as defined in paragraph 2 above, it may delay the application of the provisions on product patents of Section 5 of Part II of this Agreement to such areas of technology for an additional period of five years.
  5.Any Member availing itself of a transitional period under paragraphs 1, 2, 3 or 4 above shall ensure that any changes in its domestic laws, regulations and practice made during that period do not result in a lesser degree of consistency with the provisions of this Agreement.

第66條 低度開發國家會員


  1.鑑於低度開發國家會員之特殊需求,及其經濟、財政、行政之限制,與建立一可行之科技基礎所需之彈性,此等會員,除第三條至第五條規定外,自本協定第六十五條第一項所定之日起十年內,不得被要求實施本協定。與貿易有關之智慧財產權理事會得基於低度開發 國家會員之請求延長該期限。
  2.已開發國家會員應提供其國內企業及機構誘因,推廣並鼓勵將技術移轉至低度開發國家會員,使其能建立一穩定可行之科技基礎。

Article 66 Least-Developed Country Members


  1.In view of their special needs and requirements, their economic, financial and administrative constraints, and their need for flexibility to create a viable technological base, least- developed country Members shall not be required to apply the provisions of this Agreement, other than Articles 3, 4 and 5, for a period of 10 years from the date of application as defined under paragraph 1 of Article 65 above.The Council shall, upon duly motivated request by a least-developed country Member, accord extensions of this period.
  2.Developed country Members shall provide incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to least-developed country Members in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological base.

第67條 技術合作


  為有助於本協定之實施,已開發會員應基於請求及雙方同意之條件,提供有利於開發中國家及 低度開發國家會員技術上及財務上之合作。上述合作應包括智慧財產權保護與執行之國內立法準備工作及權利濫用的防制,及對國內機構之設立與強化之支助,包括人員之訓練。

Article 67 Technical Cooperation


  In order to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement, developed country Members shall provide, on request and on mutually agreed terms and conditions, technical and financial cooperation in favour of developing and least-developed country Members.Such cooperation shall include assistance in the preparation of domestic legislation on the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as on the prevention of their abuse, and shall include support regarding the establishment or reinforcement of domestic offices and agencies relevant to these matters, including the training of personnel.

回索引〉〉

第七篇  機構安排;最終條款

第68條 與貿易有關之智慧財產權


  理事會TRIPS理事會應監督本協定之實行,尤其是監督會員是否遵行其義務,其並應提供會員 就TRIPS事務之諮商之機會。該理事會亦應完成會員指定之責任,尤其應提供會員依爭端解決 程序所請求之協助。理事會為執行其職責得參考並蒐集其認為適當之資料。為與世界智慧財產 權組織進行諮商,理事會應於第一次會議舉行後一年內建立與該組織合作的適當安排。

Article 68 Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights


  The Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights shall monitor the operation of this Agreement and, in particular, Members' compliance with their obligations hereunder, and shall afford Members the opportunity of consulting on matters relating to the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights.It shall carry out such other responsibilities as assigned to it by the Members, and it shall, in particular, provide any assistance requested by them in the context of dispute settlement procedures.In carrying out its functions, the Council may consult with and seek information from any source it deems appropriate.In consultation with the World Intellectual Property Organization, the Council shall seek to establish, within one year of its first meeting, appropriate arrangements for cooperation with bodies of that Organization.

第69條


  國際合作所有會員同意相互合作以消弭侵害智慧財產權物品之國際貿易。為此,各會員應建立 並通知其行政體系內之連繫單位,並就違法物品之貿易交換資料。各會員尤應對仿冒商標及侵 害著作權之物品之交易加強各國海關當局之資訊交換及相互合作。

Article 69 International Cooperation


  Members agree to cooperate with each other with a view to eliminating international trade in goods infringing intellectual property rights.For this purpose, they shall establish and notify contact points in their national administrations and be ready to exchange information on trade in infringing goods.They shall, in particular, promote the exchange of information and cooperation between customs authorities with regard to trade in counterfeit trademark goods and pirated copyright goods.

第70條 現存標的之保護


  1.本協定對於會員適用本協定前之行為不具約束力。
  2.除本協定另有規定外,本協定對於會員適用本協定之日已存在且已受會員保護或日後符合保護要件之標的,亦適用之。本項及第三項、第四項關於現存著作之著作權保護應完全依據(一九七一年)伯恩公約第十八條規定決定之; 關於錄音物製作人及表演人之權利應完 全依本協定第十四條第六項規定適用(一九七一年)伯恩公約第十八條規定決定之。
  3.本協定適用之日業已成為公共所有之物,會員無義務恢復其保護。
  4.與含有受保護之特定產品有關之各種行為, 違反符合本協定之國內法規,且係在該會員未接受WTO協定前業已開始或已大量投資者,任一會員對權利人之救濟方式得予以限制,俾使前述行為於該會員適用WTO協定後得繼續為之。但會員至少應規定權利人得獲得合理之 補償金。
  5.任何人於會員適用本協定前購買之原件或重製物,會員無義務對之適用本協定第十一條及第十四條第四項。
  6.倘政府之授權係於本協定公布生效日確知之前所為者,則就非由權利人授權使用之情形,會員不應被要求適用第三十一條,或第二十七條第一項關於專利權就技術領域應無歧視授 與之要件。
  7.智慧財產權以註冊為取得保護之要件者,申請人所申請註冊之會員適用本協定時,該申請案仍未確定者,申請人得依本協定修改申請案以加強保護,但此項修正不得包括涵蓋新事 項。
  8.WTO協定生效時,會員尚未依第二十七條給予藥品及農藥品專利保護者,該會員應:
  (a)不問第四篇之規定,自世界貿易組織協定生效日起,提供可使該項發明申請專利之方 式。
  (b)於本協定適用日起,使該等申請案適用本協定之專利要件基準,且該基準視同於申請案之申請日或優先權日即已存在。
  (c)對符合(b)款基準之申請案,至准予專利時起依本協定給予專利保護,且其所餘專利期間依第三十三條申請日起算。
  9.WTO協定生效後某項專利申請已於一會員核准並取得上市許可,則依前款規定,其先前向另一會員提出之專利申請案,應自此會員核發上市許可後五年或至該會員核准或駁回其專 利之日止,而以日期較短者為準享有專屬權。

Article 70 Protection of Existing Subject Matter


  1.This Agreement does not give rise to obligations in respect of acts which occurred before the date of application of the Agreement for the Member in question.
  2.Except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement, this Agreement gives rise to obligations in respect of all subject matter existing at the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question, and which is protected in that Member on the said date, or which meets or comes subsequently to meet the criteria for protection under the terms of this Agreement.In respect of this paragraph and paragraphs 3 and 4 below, copyright obligations with respect to existing works shall be solely determined under Article 18 of the Berne Convention(1971), and obligations with respect to the rights of producers of phonograms and performers in existing phonograms shall be determined solely under Article 18 of the Berne Convention(1971)as made applicable under paragraph 6 of Article 14 of this Agreement.
  3.There shall be no obligation to restore protection to subject matter which on the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question has fallen into the public domain.
  4.In respect of any acts in respect of specific objects embodying protected subject matter which become infringing under the terms of legislation in conformity with this Agreement, and which were commenced, or in respect of which a significant investment was made, before the date of acceptance of the Agreement Establishing the WTO by that Member, any Member may provide for a limitation of the remedies available to the right holder as to the continued performance of such acts after the date of application of the Agreement for that Member.In such cases the Member shall, however, at least provide for the payment of equitable remuneration.
  5.A Member is not obliged to apply the provisions of Article 11 and of paragraph 4 of Article 14 with respect to originals or copies purchased prior to the date of application of this Agreement for that Member.
  6.Members shall not be required to apply Article 31, or the requirement in paragraph 1 of Article 27 that patent rights shall be enjoyable without discrimination as to the field of technology, to use without the authorization of the right holder where authorization for such use was granted by the government before the date this Agreement became known.
  7.In the case of intellectual property rights for which protection is conditional upon registration, applications for protection which are pending on the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question shall be permitted to be amended to claim any enhanced protection provided under the provisions of this Agreement.Such amendments shall not include new matter.
  8.Where a Member does not make available as of the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO patent protection for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products commensurate with its obligations under Article 27, that Member shall:
  (i)notwithstanding the provisions of Part VI above, provide as from the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO a means by which applications for patents for such inventions can be filed;
  (ii)apply to these applications, as of the date of application of this Agreement, the criteria for patentability as laid down in this Agreement as if those criteria were being applied on the date of filing in that Member or, where priority is available and claimed, the priority date of the application;
  (iii)provide patent protection in accordance with this Agreement as from the grant of the patent and for the remainder of the patent term, counted from the filing date in accordance with Article 33 of this Agreement, for those of these applications that meet the criteria for protection referred to in sub-paragraph(ii)above.
  9.Where a product is the subject of a patent application in a Member in accordance with paragraph 8(i)above, exclusive marketing rights shall be granted, notwithstanding the provisions of Part VI above, for a period of five years after obtaining market approval in that Member or until a product patent is granted or rejected in that Member, whichever period is shorter, provided that, subsequent to the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO, a patent application has been filed and a patent granted for that product in another Member and marketing approval obtained in such other Member.

第71條 檢討與修正


  1.TRIPS理事會應於六十五條第二項規定之過渡期間屆滿後對本協定之執行進行檢討。並應就其執行中所獲得之經驗於該期滿日後二年及其後之相同間隔,予以檢討。該理事會亦得審 理任何有關之最近發展,俾供本協定修改之依據。
  2.修正內容僅於為調適達到其他多邊協定所採行之較高層次之智慧財產權保護目的,並為世 界貿易組織所有會員所接受者,得由與貿易有關之智慧財產權理事會於共識決後提議由部 長級會議依第十條第六項執行之。

Article 71 Review and Amendment


  1.The Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights shall review the implementation of this Agreement after the expiration of the transitional period referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 65 above.The Council shall, having regard to the experience gained in its implementation, review it two years after that date, and at identical intervals thereafter.The Council may also undertake reviews in the light of any relevant new developments which might warrant modification or amendment of this Agreement.
  2.Amendments merely serving the purpose of adjusting to higher levels of protection of intellectual property rights achieved, and in force, in other multilateral agreements and accepted under those agreements by all Members of the WTO may be referred to the Ministerial Conference for action in accordance with Article X, paragraph 6, of the Agreement Establishing the WTO on the basis of a consensus proposal from the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

第72條 保 留


  本協定任一條文未獲其他會員同意,不得予以保留。

Article 72 Reservations


  Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Members.

第73條 安全例外


  本協定內各條款不得被詮釋為: 要求任一會員提供其認為公開後有違其基本安全利益之資料;或就下列事項阻止任一會員採取 任何其認為對其基本安全利益有必要之保護行為,例如:
  (1)關於核子分裂物質或其產物。
  (2)關於武器彈藥戰爭用品之交易以及直接或間接提供軍事設施用途之用品或物資之交易。
  (3)戰時或其他國際關係緊急情況之措施;或阻止任何一會員遵循聯合國憲章之義務,所為維持世界和平及安全所採取之任何行為。

Article 73 Security Exceptions


  Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed:
  (a)to require any Member to furnish any information the disclosure of which it considers contrary to its essential security interests; or
  (b)to prevent any Member from taking any action which it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interests;
  (i)relating to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived;
  (ii)relating to the traffic in arms, ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other goods and materials as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military establishment;
  (iii)taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations; or
  (c)to prevent any Member from taking any action in pursuance of its obligations under the United Nations Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security.

Endnotes (章末注解)


  1.When "nationals" are referred to in this Agreement, they shall be deemed, in the case of a separate customs territory Member of the WTO, to mean persons, natural or legal, who are domiciled or who have a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment in that customs territory.
  2.In this Agreement, "Paris Convention" refers to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property; "Paris Convention(1967)" refers to the Stockholm Act of this Convention of 14 July 1967."Berne Convention" refers to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works; "Berne Convention(1971)" refers to the Paris Act of this Convention of 24 July 1971."Rome Convention" refers to the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations, adopted at Rome on 26 October 1961."Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits"(IPIC Treaty)refers to the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits, adopted at Washington on 26 May 1989.
  3.For the purposes of Articles 3 and 4 of this Agreement, protection shall include matters affecting the availability, acquisition, scope, maintenance and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as those matters affecting the use of intellectual property rights specifically addressed in this Agreement.
  4.Notwithstanding the first sentence of Article 42, Members may, with respect to these obligations, instead provide for enforcement by administrative action.
  5.For the purposes of this Article, the terms "inventive step" and "capable of industrial application" may be deemed by a Member to be synonymous with the terms "non-obvious" and "useful" respectively.
  6.This right, like all other rights conferred under this Agreement in respect of the use, sale, importation or other distribution of goods, is subject to the provisions of Article 6 above.
  7."Other use" refers to use other than that allowed under Article 30.
  8.It is understood that those Members which do not have a system of original grant may provide that the term of protection shall be computed from the filing date in the system of original grant.
  9.The term "right holder" in this Section shall be understood as having the same meaning as the term "holder of the right" in the IPIC Treaty.
  10.For the purpose of this provision, "a manner contrary to honest commercial practices" shall mean at least practices such as breach of contract, breach of confidence and inducement to breach, and includes the acquisition of undisclosed information by third parties who knew, or were grossly negligent in failing to know, that such practices were involved in the acquisition.
  11.For the purpose of this Part, the term "right holder" includes federations and associations having legal standing to assert such rights.
  12.Where a Member has dismantled substantially all controls over movement of goods across its border with another Member with which it forms part of a customs union, it shall not be required to apply the provisions of this Section at that border.
  13.It is understood that there shall be no obligation to apply such procedures to imports of goods put on the market in another country by or with the consent of the right holder, or to goods in transit.
  14.For the purposes of this Agreement:
  - counterfeit trademark goods shall mean any goods, including packaging, bearing without authorization a trademark which is identical to the trademark validly registered in respect of such goods, or which cannot be distinguished in its essential aspects from such a trademark, and which thereby infringes the rights of the owner of the trademark in question under the law of the country of importation;
  - pirated copyright goods shall mean any goods which are copies made without the consent of the right holder or person duly authorized by him in the country of production and which are made directly or indirectly from an article where the making of that copy would have constituted an infringement of a copyright or a related right under the law of the country of importation.


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