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【名稱】


《領海及鄰接區公約》

 (Convention for the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone)

【發布單位】聯合國大會
【發布日期】一九五八年四月二十九日通過Done at Geneva on 29 April 1958


【章節索引】
第一編 領海
》第一節 總則 §1
》第二節 領海之界限 §3
》第三節 無害通過權 §14
第二編 鄰接區 §24
第三編 最後條款 §25


【內容】

第一編  領海  第一節  總 則

PART I.TERRITORIAL SEA  SECTION I. GENERAL

第1條


  一、國家主權及於本國領陸及內國水域以外鄰接本國海岸之一帶海洋,稱為領海。
  二、此項主權依本條款規定及國際法其他規則行使之。

Article 1


  1. The sovereignty of a State extends, beyond its land territory and its internal waters, to a belt of sea adjacent to its coast, described as the territorial sea.
  2. This sovereignty is exercised subject to the provisions of these articles and to other rules of international law.

第2條


  沿海國之主權及於領海之上空及其海床與底土。

Article 2


  The sovereignty of a coastal State extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as to its bed and subsoil.

回頁首〉〉

第一編  領海  第二節  領海之界限

SECTION II. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

第3條


  除本條款另有規定外,測算領海寬度之正常基線為沿海國官方承認之大比例尺海圖所標明之海岸低潮線。

Article 3


  Except where otherwise provided in these articles, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

第4條


  一、在海岸線甚為曲折之地區,或沿岸島嶼羅列密邇海岸之處,得採用以直線連接酌定各點之方法劃定測算領海寬度之基線。
  二、劃定此項基線不得與海岸一般方法相去過遠,且基線內之海面必須充分接近領陸方屬內國水域範圍。
  三、低潮高地不得作為劃定基線之起迄點,但其上建有經常高出海平面之燈塔或類似設置者,不在此限。
  四、遇有依第一項規定可適用直線基數方法之情形,關係區域內之特殊經濟利益經由長期慣例證明實在而重要者,得於確定特定基線時予以注意。
  五、一國適用直線基線辦法不得使他國領海與公海隔絕。
  六、沿海國應將此項直線基線在海圖上標明,並妥為通告周知。

Article 4


  1. In localities where the coastline is deeply indented and cut into, or if there is a fringe of islands along the coast in its immediate vicinity, the method of straight baselines joining appropriate points may be employed in drawing the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
  2.The drawing of such baselines must not depart to any appreciable extent from the general direction of the coast, and the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters.
  3.Baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have been built on them.
  4.Where the method of straight baselines is applicable under the provisions of paragraph 1, account may be taken, in determining particular baselines, of economic interests peculiar to the region concerned, the reality and the importance of which are clearly evidenced by a long usage.
  5.The system of straight baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off from the high seas the territorial sea of another State.
  6.The coastal State must clearly indicate straight baselines on charts, to which due publicity must be given.

第5條


  一、領海基線向陸一方之水域構成一國內國水域之一部份。
  二、依第四條劃定直線基線致使原先認為領海或公海一部份之水面劃屬內國水域時,在此項水面內應有第十四條至第二十三條所規定之無害通過權。

Article 5


  1.Waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State.
  2.Where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with article 4 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which previously had been considered as part of the territorial sea or of the high seas, a right of innocent passage, as provided in articles 14 to 23, shall exist in those waters.

第6條


  領海之外部界限為每一點與基線上最近之點距離等於領海寬度之線。

Article 6


  The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the territorial sea.

第7條


  一、本條僅對海岸屬於一國之海灣加以規定。
  二、本條款所稱海灣指明顯之水曲,其內曲程度與入口闊度之比例使其中之水成陸地包圍狀,而不僅為海岸之彎曲處。但水曲除其面積等於或大於以連貫曲口之線為直徑畫成之平圓形者外,不得視為海灣。
  三、測定水曲面積,以水曲沿岸周圍之低潮標與連接其天然入口各端低潮標之線間之面積為準。水曲因有島嶼致曲口不止一處者,半圓形應以各口口徑長度之總和為直徑畫成之。水曲內島嶼應視為水曲水面之一部份。一併計入之。
  四、海灣天然入口各端低潮標間之距離不超過二十四浬者,得在此兩低潮標之間劃定收口線,其所圍入之水域視為內國水域。
  五、如海灣天然入口各端低潮標間之距離超過二十四浬,應在灣內劃定長度二十四浬之直線基線,並擇其可能圍入最大水面之一線。
  六、前列規定不適用於所謂歷史性海灣或採用第四條所載直線基線辦法之任何情形。

Article 7


  1.This article relates only to bays the coasts of which belong to a single State.
  2.For the purposes of these articles, a bay is a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semicircle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation.
  3.For the purpose of measurement, the area of an indentation is that lying between the low-water mark around the shore of the indentation and a line joining the low-water marks of its natural entrance points. Where, because of the presence of islands, an indentation has more than one mouth, the semicircle shall be drawn on a line as long as the sum total of the lengths of the lines across the different mouths. Islands within an indentation shall be included as if they were part of the water areas of the indentation.
  4. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay does not exceed twenty-four miles, a closing line may be drawn between these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed thereby shall be considered as internal waters.
  5.Where the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay exceed twenty-four miles, a straight baseline of twenty-four miles shall be drawn within the bay in such a manner as to enclose the maximum area of water that is possible with a line of that length.
  6.The foregoing provisions shall not apply to so-called “historic” bays, or in any case where the straight baseline system provided for in article 4 is applied.

第8條


  定領海界限時,出海最遠之永久海港工程屬於整個海港系統之內者應視為構成海岸之一部份。

Article 8


  For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system shall be regarded as forming part of the coast.

第9條


  凡通常供船舶裝卸及下錨用途之泊船處,雖全部或一部位於領海外部界限以外,仍屬領海範圍。沿海國應將此項泊船處明加界劃,並在海圖上連同其界線一併載明;此項界線應妥為通告周知。

Article 9


  Roadsteads which are normally used for the loading, unloading and anchoring of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea. The coastal State must clearly demarcate such roadsteads and indicate them on charts together with their boundaries, to which due publicity must be given.

第10條


  一、稱島嶼者指四面圍水、露出高潮水面之天然形成之陸地。
  二、島嶼之領海依條款規定測定之。

Article 10


  1.An island is a naturally formed area of land, surrounded by water, which is above water at high tide.
  2.The territorial sea of an island is measured in accordance with the provisions of these articles.

第11條


  一、稱低潮高地者謂低潮時四面圍水但露出水面而於高潮時淹沒之天然形成之陸地。低潮高地之全部或一部份位於距大陸或島嶼不超過領海寬度之處者,其低潮線得作為測算領海寬度之基線。
  二、低潮高地全部位於距大陸或島嶼超過領海寬度之處者,其本身無領海。

Article 11


  1.A low-tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, the low-water line on that elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea.
  2.Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distance exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial sea of its own.

第12條


  一、兩國海岸相向或相鄰者,除彼此另有協議外,均無權將本國領海擴展至每一點均與測算各該國領海寬度之基線上最近各點距離相等之中央線以外。但如因歷史上權利或其他特殊情況而須以異於本項規定之方法劃定兩國領海之界限,本項規定不適用之。
  二、相同兩國或相鄰兩國之領海分界線應於沿海國官方承認之大比例尺海圖上標明之。

Article 12


  1.Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary, to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of each of the two States is measured. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply, however, where it is necessary by reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two States in a way which is at variance with this provision.
  2.The line of delimitation between the territorial seas of two States lying opposite to each other or adjacent to each other shall be marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal States.

第13條


  河川直接流注入海者,以河岸低潮線間連接河口各端之直線為基線。

Article 13


  If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight line across the mouth of the river between points on the low-tide line of its banks.

回頁首〉〉

第一編  領海  第三節  無害通過權

SECTION III. RIGHT OF INNOCENT PASSAGE

甲款。適用於一切船舶之規則

Subsection A. Rules applicable to all ships

第14條


  一、無論是否沿海國之各國船舶依本條款之規定享有無害通過領海之權。
  二、稱通過者謂在領海中航行,其目的或僅在經過領海而不進入內國水域,或為前往內國水域,或為自內國水域駛往公海。
  三、通過包括停船及下錨在內,但以通常航行附帶有此需要,或因不可抗力或遇災難確有有必要者為限。
  四、通過如不妨害沿海國之和平、善良秩序或安全即係無害通過。此項通過應遵照本條款及國際法其他規則為之。
  五、外國漁船於通過時如不遵守沿海國為防止此等船舶在領海內捕魚而制定公佈之法律規章,應不視為無害通過。
  六、潛水船艇須在海面上航行並揭示其國旗。

Article 14


  1.Subject to the provisions of these articles, ships of all States, whether coastal or not, shall enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.
  2.Passage means navigation through the territorial sea for the purpose either of traversing that sea without entering internal waters, or of proceeding to internal waters, or of making for the high seas from internal waters.
  3.Passage includes stopping and anchoring, but only insofar as the same are incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by force majeure or by distress.
  4.Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with these articles and with other rules of international law.
  5.Passage of foreign fishing vessels shall not be considered innocent if they do not observe such laws and regulations as the coastal State may make and publish in order to prevent these vessels from fishing in the territorial sea.
  6.Submarines are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag.

第15條


  一、沿海國不得阻礙領海中之無害通過。
  二、沿海國須將其所知之領海內航行危險以適當方式通告周知。

Article 15


  1.The coastal State must not hamper innocent passage through the territorial sea.
  2.The coastal State is required to give appropriate publicity to any dangers to navigation, of which it has knowledge, within its territorial sea.

第16條


  一、沿海國得在其領海內採取必要步驟,以防止非為無害之通過。
  二、關於駛往內國水域之船舶,沿海國亦應有權採取必要步驟,以防止違反准其駛入此項水域之條件。
  三、以不牴觸第四項之規定為限,沿海國於保障本國安全確有必要時,得在其領海之特定區域內暫時停止外國船舶之無害通過,但在外國船舶間不得有差別待遇。此項停止須於妥為公告後,方始發生效力。
  四、在公海之一部份與公海另一部份或外國領海之間供國際航行之用之海峽中,不得停止外國船舶之無害通過。

Article 16


  1.The coastal State may take the necessary steps in its territorial sea to prevent passage which is not innocent.
  2. In the case of ships proceeding to internal waters, the coastal State shall also have the right to take the necessary steps to prevent any breach of the conditions to which admission of those ships to those waters is subject.
  3.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4, the coastal State may, without discrimination amongst foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its territorial sea the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published.
  4.There shall be no suspension of the innocent passage of foreign ships through straits which are used for international navigation between one part of the high seas and another part of the high seas or the territorial sea of a foreign State.

第17條


  外國船舶行駛無害通過權時應遵守沿海國依本條款及國際法其他規則所制定之法律規章,尤應遵守有關運輸及航行之此項法律規章。

Article 17


  Foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage shall comply with the laws and regulations enacted by the coastal State in conformity with these articles and other rules of international law and, in particular, with such laws and regulations relating to transport and navigation.

乙款。適用於商船之規則

Subsection B. Rules applicable to merchant ships

第18條


  一、外國船舶僅在領海通過者,不得向其徵收任何費用。
  二、向通過領海之外國船舶徵收費用應僅以船舶受有特定服務須為償付之情形為限。徵收此項費用不得有差別待遇。

Article 18


  1.No charge may be levied upon foreign ships by reason only of their passage through the territorial sea.
  2.Charges may be levied upon a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea as payment only for specific services rendered to the ship. These charges shall be levied without discrimination.

第19條


  一、沿海國不得因外國船舶通過領海時船上發生犯罪行為而在通過領海之船上行使刑事管轄權、逮捕任何人或從事調查,但有下列之一者,不在此限:
  (一)犯罪之後果及於沿海國者;
  (二)犯罪行為擾亂國家和平或領海之善良秩序者;
  (三)經船長或船旗國領事請求地方當局予以協助者;
  (四)為取締非法販運麻醉藥品確有必要者。
  二、前項規定不影響沿海國依本國法律對駛離內國水域通過領海之外國船舶採取步驟在船上實行逮捕或調查之權。
  三、遇有本條第一項及第二項所規定之情形,沿海國應於船長請求時,在採取任何步驟之前,先行通知船旗國領事機關,並應對該機關與船員間之接洽予以便利。如情形緊急,此項通知得於採取措施之際為之。
  四、地方當局於考慮是否或如何實行逮捕時,應妥為顧及航行之利益。
  五、倘外國船舶自外國海港啟航,僅通過領海而進入內國水域,沿海國不得因該船進入領海前所發生之犯罪行為而在其通過領海時於船上採取任何步驟、逮捕任何人或從事調查。

Article 19


  1.The criminal jurisdiction of the coastal State should not be exercised on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed on board the ship during its passage, save only in the following cases:
  (a)If the consequences of the crime extend to the coastal State; or
  (b)If the crime is of a kind to disturb the peace of the country or the good order of the territorial sea; or
  (c)If the assistance of the local authorities has been requested by the captain of the ship or by the consul of the country whose flag the ship flies; or
  (d)If it is necessary for the suppression of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs.
  2.The above provisions do not affect the right of the coastal State to take any steps authorized by its laws for the purpose of an arrest or investigation on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.
  3. In the cases provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, the coastal State shall, if the captain so requests, advise the consular authority of the flag State before taking any steps, and shall facilitate contact between such authority and the ship’s crew. In cases of emergency this notification may be communicated while the measures are being taken.
  4. In considering whether or how an arrest should be made, the local authorities shall pay due regard to the interests of navigation.
  5.The coastal State may not take any steps on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed before the ship entered the territorial sea, if the ship, proceeding from a foreign port, is only passing through the territorial sea without entering internal waters.

第20條


  一、沿海國對於通過領海之外國船舶不得為向船上之人行使民事管轄權而令船停駛或變更船舶航向。
  二、除關於船舶本身在沿海國水域航行過程中或為此種航行目的所承擔或所生債務或義務之訴訟外,沿海國不得因任何民事訴訟而對船舶從事執行或實行逮捕。
  三、前項規定不妨礙沿海國為任何民事訴訟依本國法律對在其領海內停泊或駛離內國水域通過領海之外國船舶從事執行或實行逮捕之權。

Article 20


  1.The coastal State should not stop or divert a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea for the purpose of exercising civil jurisdiction in relation to a person on board the ship.
  2.The coastal State may not levy execution against or arrest the ship for the purpose of any civil proceedings, save only in respect of obligations or liabilities assumed or incurred by the ship itself in the course or for the purpose of its voyage through the waters of the coastal State.
  3.The provisions of the previous paragraph are without prejudice to the right of the coastal State, in accordance with its laws, to levy execution against or to arrest, for the purpose of any civil proceedings, a foreign ship lying in the territorial sea, or passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.

丙款。適用於軍艦以外政府船舶之規則

Subsection C. Rules applicable to government ships other than warships

第21條


  甲款及乙款所載規則亦適用於商務用途之政府船舶。

Article 21


  The rules contained in subsections A and B shall also apply to government ships operated for commercial purposes.

第22條


  一、甲款及第十八條所載規則適用於非商務用途之政府船舶。
  二、除前項所稱各項規定載明之例外情形外,本條款絕不影響此船舶依本條款或國際法其他規則所享有之豁免。

Article 22


  1.The rules contained in subsection A and in article 18 shall apply to government ships operated for non-commercial purposes.
  2.With such exceptions as are contained in the provisions referred to in the preceding paragraph, nothing in these articles affects the immunities which such ships enjoy under these articles or other rules of international law.

Subsection D. Rules applicable to warships

丁款。適用於軍艦之規則

第23條


  任何軍艦不遵守沿海國有關通過領海之規章,經請其遵守而仍不依從者,沿海國得要求其離開領海。

Article 23


  If any warship does not comply with the regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea and disregards any request for compliance which is made to it, the coastal
  State may require the warship to leave the territorial sea.

回頁首〉〉

第二編  鄰接區

PART II.CONTIGUOUS ZONE

第24條


  一、沿海國得在鄰接其領海之公海區內行使必要之管制以:
  (一)防止在其領土或領海內有違犯其海關、財政、移民或衛生規章之行為;
  (二)懲治在其領土或領海內違犯前述規章之行為。
  二、此項鄰接區自測定領海寬度之基線起算,不得超出十二浬。
  三、兩國海岸相向或相鄰者,除彼此另有協議外,均無權將本國之鄰接區擴展至每一點均與測算兩國領海寬度之基線上最近各點距離相等之中央線以外。

Article 24


  1. In a zone of the high seas contiguous to its territorial sea, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to:
  (a)Prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary regulations within its territory or territorial sea;
  (b)Punish infringement of the above regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea.
  2.The contiguous zone may not extend beyond twelve miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
  3.Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary, to extend its contiguous zone beyond the median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of the two States is measured.

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第三編  最後條款

PART III.FINAL ARTICLES 9

第25條


  本公約之條款對於現已生效之公約或其他國際協定,就其當事各國間關係言,並不發生影響。

Article 25


  The provisions of this Convention shall not affect conventions or other international agreements already in force, as between States Parties to them.

第26條


  本公約在一九五八年十月三十一日以前聽由聯合國或任何專門機關之全體會員國及經由聯合國大會邀請參加為本公約當事一方之任何其他國家簽署。

Article 26


  This Convention shall, until 31 October 1958, be open for signature by all States Members of the
  United Nations or of any of the specialized agencies, and by any other State invited by the General
  Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to the Convention.

第27條


  本公約應予批准。批准文件應送交聯合國秘書長存放。

Article 27


  This Convention is subject to ratification. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

第28條


  本公約應聽由屬於第二十六條所稱任何一類之國家加入。加入文件應送交聯聯合國秘書長存放。

Article 28


  This Convention shall be open for accession by any States belonging to any of the categories mentioned in article 26. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

第29條


  一、本公約應於第二十二條批准或加入文件送交聯合國秘書長存放之日後第三十日起發生效力。
  二、對於在第二十二條批准或加入文件存放後批准或加入本公約之國家,本公約應於各該國存放批准或加入文件後第三十日起發生效力。

Article 29


  1.This Convention shall come into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the twenty-second instrument of ratification or accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  2.For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twenty-second instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

第30條


  一、締約任何一方得於本公約生效之日起滿五年後隨時書面通知聯合國秘書長請求修改本公約。
  二、對於此項請求應採何種步驟,由聯合國大會決定之。

Article 30


  1.After the expiration of a period of five years from the date on which this Convention shall enter into force, a request for the revision of this Convention may be made at any time by any Contracting
  Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  2.The General Assembly of the United Nations shall decide upon the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such request.

第31條


  聯合國秘書長應將下列事項通知聯合國各會員國及第二十六條所稱之其他國家:
  (一)依第二十六條、第二十七條及第二十八條對本公約所為之簽署及送存之批准或加入文件;
  (二)依第二十九條本公約發生效力之日期;
  (三)依第三十條所提關於修改本公約之請求。

Article 31


  The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States Members of the United
  Nations and the other States referred to in article 26: 10
  (a)Of signatures to this Convention and of the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession, in accordance with articles 26, 27 and 28;
  (b)Of the date on which this Convention will come into force, in accordance with article 29;
  (c)Of requests for revision in accordance with article 30.

第32條


  本公約之原本應交聯合國秘書長存放,其中文、英文、法文、俄文及西班牙文各本同一作準;秘書長應將各文正式副本分送第二十六條所稱各國。
  為此,下列全權代表各秉本國政府正式授予簽字之權,謹簽字於本公約,以昭信守。
  公曆一千九百五十八年四月二十九日訂於日內瓦。

Article 32


  The original of this Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send certified copies thereof to all States referred to in article 26.
  IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.
  DONE at Geneva, this twenty-ninth day of April one thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight.


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